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R«n« Bord< 

November 1Q30 

-35 Cent>s a Copy 

ublicationfi [ Professionals ^Amateur 

AFe w More of Our Current 







Leo Tover 

“The Silver Horde’’ R-K-O. . 

“Play Boy of Paris”. Paramount . T.. Henry Cerrard 

“Tom Sawyer” Paramount ...Charles Lang 

“Typhoon Bill”. .Paramount Harry Fischbeck 

“Sea Legs’’ Paramount Allen Siegler 

“Virtuous Sin” Paramount. David Abel 

“A Lady’s Morals” M-C-M George Barnes 

“Remote Control” , M-G-M. Merritt Cerstad 

“Reno”.. ...Sono Art... Harry Jackson 

“Extravagance” Tiffany.... Max Du Pont 

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New York, 1 1 West 42nd Street, Hollywood, 6324 Santa Monica Blvd. 

London (B. & H. Co. Ltd.) 320 Regent Street / r Established 1907 

Bei Aufragen und Bestellungen beziehen Sie sich bitte auf die American Cinematographer. 



especially corrected 

for both orthochromatic and panchromatic film 



i than 8000 
(actured by 
ng con- 

Since the advent of sou nd more 
lighting units have been manu 
Mole-Richardson and are renderi 
sistent service to the Industry. 

There is something rather convinci 
that fact , as to performance, c 
and dependability of Mole-Ri* 
products. There is also the ama 
that more Mole-Richardson "Ink 
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Veuillez faire mention de I’American Cinematographer en ecrivant aux announceurs. 




A Technical and Educational Publication, Espousing Progress and Art in Motion Picture Photography 


President, A. S. C. 


Editor-in-Chief and General Manager, A. S. C. 


BOARD OF EDITORS: William Stull, Herford Tynes Cowling and Ned Van Buren 


Technical Editor, A. S. C. 

Volume XI 


Number 7 



TEN YEARS OF PROGRESS, by Hal Mohr, A. S. C 9 




SOUND FILM, by Clifton Tuttle and J. W. McFarlane 14 


SCREEN DEFINITION, by Dr. L. M. Dieterich.. 17 




AMATEUR MOVIE MAKING, by Wm. Stull, A. S. C 34 



by J. W. Boyle, A. S. C 39 



Georges Benoit, c-o Louis Verande, 12 rue d’Aguessau Paris, 8e 
John Dored, Paramount News, Paramount Building, 1 Rue Meyerbeer, Paris IXe, France 
Herford Tynes Cowling, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York, Eastern Representative 
Harold Sintzenich, Eastman Kodak Company, Bombay, India 

Established 1918. Advertising Rates on Application. Subscription: U. S., $3.00 a year; Canada, $3.50 a year; Foreign, $4.00 a year; single copies, 25c 
Telephone GRanite 4274 Copyright, 1930, by the American Society of Cinematographers, Inc. 


A scene from “Morocco,” a Paramount Picture. 

. . . and now, even more faithful! for 

44 Wi di es ** and ii Cotor" 

The talking-si nging-Z/fing pictures have devel- 
oped more exactions from light and photog- 
raphy in the past year than pictures developed 
in ten years before. 

And “light men” find that National Pho- 
tographic Carbons have advanced in step with 
every development . . . the new areas of 
“Wide” films . . . the finest of values for color 

National Photographic Carbons for every 
delicate nuance of color — every charming 

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light and shadow- — ability to serve the difficult 
close-up or long-shot. 

National Photographic Carbons — as reliable 
as a shaft of sunlight — as sensitive as the play 
of moonlight on the surf — Taithful friends of 
“light men,” cinematographers, and stars. 


Carbon Sales Division: Cleveland, Ohio 

Unit of Union Carbide 

and Carbon Corporation 

Branch Sales Offices: New York, N. Y. Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Chicago, 111. Birmingham, Ala. San Francisco, Calif. 

National Photographic Carbons 


Please mention the American Cinematographer when writing advertisers. 


^(eadership is attained through the 
proven ability of a product to render per- 
formance and service superior to that of any 

In the development of the motion 

picture industry is offered a product, the 
exceptional performance and service of 
which has gained for it the distinction of 
being foremost in the lighting equipment field. 

"If it's not 

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1707 Naud Street LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA CApital 5387 

Bei Aufragen und Bestellungen beziehen Sie sich bitte auf die American Cinematographer. 



Still by Milton Brown 




Cinematographer, OLLIE Marsh, A. S. C. Make-up Artist, GEORGE WESTMORF. 


Max Factor’s Make-up 



Highland Avenue at Hollywood Boulevard 

Tel. HO-6191 Chicago Office- — 444 West Grand Ave. Cable Address "Facto” 

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for the 

Other Foreign Branches 

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Paseo de la Reforma 36 Vi, Mexico City. 

London Office: 10 D’Arblay St., 
London, England 

500 Sarmiento, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 
Edificia Mineria, Lima, Peru. 

720 South Street, Honolulu, T. H. 

Max Factor’s 
for the 


Per piacere menzionare il Cinematographer quando scrivendo a! annunziares. 

Dr. Tanar lecturing on the System 





Full information on Dr. Tanar’s Unique Portable Sound-on-Film System which has 
down Commercial Film Business, will be mailed free if you tear out the prescription * 

been so successful in bad cases of run 
at the bottom of the page and mail to, 


General Offices: 5357 Santa Monica Blvd., Laboratories 1110-1112 North Serrano Ave., 


Telephone: HEmpstead 3939. Cables: TANARLICHT. 

* To remove prescription easily, 
fold on dotted line, press with 
luke warm flat iron; bend for- 
ward and backward several 
times to weaken structure of 
paper; then apply a thin coat 
of Aftricannel (double strength ) 
which can be purchased at any 
drug store handling Nitro- 
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prescription can be easily de- 
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Care Tanar Corp., Ltd. 

5357 Santa Monica Blvd. 
Hollywood, California, U. S. A. 

Patient's Name 


1 Folder with pictures and full description of the Tanar 
portable sound system. 

1 Book “What Owners Say.’’ 

(Dose; 1 dose will be plenty) 

Copyright 1930. Tanar Corp., Ltd. 

Var god omtala den Cinematographer in skrivning till annonsers. 



s ^ ■ 






The man who works the camera must be athoroughly decent fel- 
low or else he could not hold his position, as he has much to contend 
with and much is laid upon his unhappy head which should be blamed 
elsewhere — faulty direction, faulty chemicals, or faulty work in the 
dark room. 

The importance of the cameraman is paramount. Without him 
no good picture can be taken. He must be a many-sided individual to 
continue in his position successfully. He must, first of all, be able to 
take good pictures, apart from that, he must necessarily he a brave 
man and ready to attempt anything asked of him. He must be clear- 
headed, so that he can stand on the edge of a skyscraper, and lean over 
the top of a precipice, for that matter. lie must perch himself in almost 
incredible angles, and perhaps stand waist deep in the river or ocean. 
He must stand steadily by his work when some wild beast comes men- 
acingly close, when the other members of the party can run to shelter, 
and all the while he must steadily crank, and see that his camera is ifot 
injured by fire, animals or water, and it is a matter of record that very 
valiant deeds arc performed by the cameramen, deeds that few actors 
or directors care to brave. 

The average cameraman is a fatalist and a stoic, and lie must htfve 
the temper of a saint, for the best of directors are irritable at times, 
and even cameramen are liable to mistakes, liable to start on a scene 
without enough film in the box, liable at times to be out of focus, for 
he has many, many things to think about, and he has to think quickly 
and to be prepared for emergencies. 

The modern cameraman is for the most part a silent individual; he 
is more or less preoccupied with his work, and has not much time to mix 
with the players. He has to prepare his camera and magazines in the 
early morning, and when he returns from the day’s work he is occu- 
pied with seeing results, so that if there are any retakes, the company 
may be ready to remake the scones the following day. By the time 
he is through with his work he is ready to go home and stay there, for 
he needs all the rest and sleep he can get as a rule, as he knows he can- 
not afford to allow such things as nerves to attach themselves to his 
system. The cameraman leaves little things like that to the players 
and the directors, and endeavors to go his own way serenely. 

The man who works the camera must necessarily be a student, 
otherwise he will fall into a rut, and then— oblivion. There is so much 
excellent photography today, and so many new effects being thought 
of. that a conscientious man is forever thinking of some new -and star- 
tling effect or innovation — something new, of which he may be proud, 
and yet he knows that his name is not likely to be mentioned when 
something particularly new, even of his own creation, is shown on the 
screen, lie is content that it is the child of his brain, and that his fel- 
lows of the camera know of his feat. 

The cameraman is slowly, surely, coming into his own as screen 
developments attest his worth. 


News Notes of Current Events in the Studios Where the Films Are in 
the Making — Mention of Recent Releases. 


Motion Picture Making Attracts 
Notable People to Los Angeles 
and Southern California — Im- 
portant Developments in Evi- 
dence in All Studios. 

Los Angeles is steadily forging 
ahead as the greatest of all motion 
picture producing centers of the 
world. Millions of dollars are be- 
ing paid ont annually in salaries 
and operating expenses by com- 
panies located in this city, and 
prominent writers familiar with 
the subject, state that about 80 
per cent of the motion pictures 
made in America are made in Los 

This means much to the cinema- 
tographers — the men who make 
the motion pictures. It means that 
the reliable cameramen of execu- 
tive and general business ability 
who know how to correctly pho- 
tograph motion pictures have a 
bright and interesting future. But 
they must work and establish 
their own identity through orig- 
inal photography while co-operat- 
ing at all times with their direc- 

There is the reason why the 
members of the American Society 
of Cinematographers are steadily 
expanding with the growth and 
prestige of the industry. These 
alert, tireless, energetic men of 
the camera believe in progress 
along educational lines because 
they realize their future is in the 
making. As the motion picture in- 
dustry grows in importance their 
work is sure to win that substan- 
tial recognition that, places them 
on a par with the director. The 
cinematographer is in « large 
measure responsible for the per- 
fect picture, and no matter what 
ability the star may possess, nor 
how well the director direct, un- 
less liis cameraman knows his 
business the picture proves » cost- 
ly failure. The cinematographer 
is largely responsible for the 
achievements of the billion dollar 


It is most pleasing to representa- 
tive cinematographers to note the 
feeling of recognition and appre- 
ciation of their efforts to aid in 
producing the highest quality pho- 
tographic effects iu motion pic- 
tures. The representative and in- 
telligent directors and heads of 
producing organizations, stars and 
players, depend much upon the 
cameramen. A fitting testimonial 
to the ability of most of the cam- 
eramen is shown on the screens of 
pictures of note by the appearance 
thereon following the name of the 
director, of the name of the cam- 
eraman photographing the pic- 
ture. The recognition of the cine- 
matographer evidences the great 
mind. It shows the director who 
is r»mud of his own achievements 
who is willing to share honors with 
his cameraman, and it is the men 
of this class who create the most 
notable successes in motion pic- 

The season of 1920-1921 with 
the members of the American So- 
ciety of Cinematographers prom- 
ises to be unusually active and in- 
teresting, with several remarkable 
productions in the making that 
should establish new precedents 
for the film industry. 

Mr. Charles G. Rosher, cinema- 
tographer for Mary Pickford, is 
in the midst of production photo- 
graphing modern Italian scenes 
for Miss Pickford’s new six-reel 
picture, “The Flame in the Dark,” 
directed by Frances Marion. 

Mr. Philip E. Rosen, who is di- 
recting Metro productions, recent- 
ly finished the picture “White 
Ashes,” an all-star cast being fea- 
tured The story is by Luther 
Reed, written for the Metro. Mr. 
Rosen is now directing May Alli- 
son in that remarkable story en- 
titled. “Arc Wives to Blame,” a 
six-reel that promises unusually 
interesting features. 

Mr. King D. Gray, cinematogra- 
pher with J Grub Alexander, fea- 

turing Ben Wilson and Neva Ger- 
ber in. “The Crimson Lash,” a 
spectacular dramatic serial of 
fifteen episodes, says this picture 
will rank among the modern thril- 
lers as a very exciting serial. . It 
will be completed about December 

Mr. Ernest S. Depew, who is 
photographing “Slim” Summer- 
ville and Bobby Dunn, under the 
direction of Joe Bordeaux, in a big 
Manning comedy production, says 
the laugh lovers will receive full 
benefits when they look upon this 
film, now about ready for release. 

Mr. Fred W. Jackman, who is 
in the midst of a remarkable series 
of comedy stunts for a big Mack 
Sennett Comedy wherein Ben Tur- 
pin and Charlie Murray are being 
starred, describes a number of 
camera effects more than usually 
out of the ordinary, covering spe- 
cial photography of all arts and 
angles in this five-reel 1920 spell- 

(Continued on page 2 ) 



Philip E. Rosen, president of the 
American Society of Cinematogra- 
phers, and a director of all-star 
casts for the Metro organization, 
an authority on matters of pho- 
tography in motion pictures, who 
has toured most of the interesting 
sections since establishing his 
home in Los Angeles about two 
years ago, is pronounced in his 
praise regarding the charming 
beauty of this wonderland of 
Southern California for moving 
pictures. lie says: 

“There is every evidence that 
the charms and alluring nature- 
settings of Los Angeles, San Ber- 
nardino, Riverside, Redlands, the 
mountains and foothill districts 
tributary, and famed Catalina 
Island, which are embodied in 
moving pictures, are popular 
throughout the world. 

“Through the great variety of 
scenery, plains, forests, golden 
fruit orchards, mountains and 
marine perspectives, this country 
offers unusual advantages for the 
settings of moving picture scenar- 
ios, especially in the radiant days 
of the almost continuous summer 
months — and nearly all the year is 
summer in the Southland. 

“Alpine settings may be found 
in the snow and declivities of Mt. 
Wilson and Old Baldy, only a few 
miles away; the great sweeping 
beaches of the Santa Monica Bay, 
Redondo and San Pedro, with Cat- 
alina Island in the nearby dis- 
tance, offer most fitting surround- 
ings for the activities of ship- 
wrecked sailors, pirates, fishing 
scenes, shipping and seaside ro- 
mances. Farm life, with the old 
homesteads, and the mystery of 
the foothills, cactus and sage 
brush, all furnish the common and 
uncommon needs of the scenarios. 

“These great advantages have 
led to a new industrialism in 
Southern. California, moving pic- 
ture studios and manufacturing 
plants have been erected in many 
places, and what the neighborhood 
has to give to the pictures in per- 
fect surroundings will be returned 
in commercial profits ; the time 
having come when even the still 
life of natural beauties can be a 
source of profit. 

“Tbe value of pictures has been 
enhanced, and while people all 
over the world are being made ac- 
quainted with the beauties of Los 
Angelos and the attractive regions 
surrounding, the pictures them- 
selves are being improved a hun- 
dred fold because of the superior 
and real nature of tbe background. 
Nature and the moving picture 
form a splendid and educational 
partnership as told by tbe cameras 
of our cinematographers 


Many substantial and represent- 
ative improvements are- being 
made by the film manufacturing 
and producing interests in and 
around Los Angeles giving evi- 
dence of the growth and import- 
ance of this great industry where- 
in millions of dollars are invested. 


Ten Te ars of T^ogress 

by HAL MOHR, President, American Society of Cinematographers 

S [J — 'EN YEARS ago this month a little, four-page, semi-monthly paper, devoted to 
v 0 III the interests of Cinematographers and Cinematography, made its initial ap- 
HI pearance in Hollywood. Nothing pretentious — just four pages nine by four- 
teen inches — telling the latest developments in cinematography. This little 
paper, whose front page is pictured opposite, was called “The American Cinematog- 
rapher,” and was published by the American Society of Cinematographers, Inc. The 
first issue appeared on November first. At the time there was no thought in the 
minds of those who started it that this paper some day was to become the outstand- 
ing magazine devoted to Cinematography, professional and amateur, and to prac- 
tically all other technical matters pertaining to the making of pictures. 

Gradually, the little paper grew until it was decided that it be changed into 
a magazine. Its influence was being felt throughout the picture industry. Then it 
became a monthly and took its place at the head of the magazines pertaining 
to the cinematographic field. Its reputation spread to Germany, England, France 
— and as interest in motion pictures spread, it followed until today it is read in 
every state in the Union and in thirty-six foreign countries. From a four-page 
paper it has grown into a fifty-four page magazine that is eagerly looked for by 
thousands of readers all over the world. And — within the next few months it 
will again expand in size and before another year is expected to contain close to 
one hundred pages of instructive material each month. 

As the picture business developed and changed, so has the magazine. When 
sound came into existence this magazine was one of the first to give to its readers 
the latest technical developments along these lines. As the 16 millimeter camera and 
home projectors grew in favor and the home movie makers were seeking infor- 
mation from those who, by experience in the professional field, could intelligently 
help, this magazine introduced a department devoted to these amateurs which 
has won popular favor and is steadily growing and making its influence felt. 

Now the magazine is celebrating its tenth anniversary. And — it is doing it in 
the same manner it has grown during the years — quietly and without splurge or 
blazing trumpets. We are not asking our advertisers to spend money for additional 
pages in which to congratulate us on our growth. It has been the loyal support of 
these advertisers that has made possible our growth. In the early days when our 
circulation was very small some of these advertisers who are still with us showed 
the faith of pioneers by placing their advertising with us. We take this opportunity 
of thanking them. Today we know we are giving tremendous value to our adver- 
tisers, and we are happy because their faith was not misplaced. 

Tremendous strides ahead are being planned for the coming year and we want 
to assure every reader that no stone will be left unturned in an effort to make this 
magazine remain at the head of the field of its kind. New departments are to be 
created in the near future which will be announced from time to time. We will be 
pleased to hear from any of our readers who care to make suggestions as to edi- 
torial content or features which they feel may make the magazine of still greater 
worth. As we start our eleventh year we again thank all of you who have grown 
with us, and express the hope that both the magazine and you will enjoy as much 
prosperity in the next ten years as in the past. 


Col or Correction 

n the "Cooke / 7 "Speed Panchro" and "Panchro" Lenses 


(NOTE: — -This article was suggested to the author by an 
informal discussion between him and Mr. A. Warmisham, 
Optical Director of Taylor-Taylor-Hobson, the makers of the 
“Cooke” Lenses. 

Color correction for cinematographic lenses has been, for 
the last two or three years, the subject of continued discussion 
in the cinematographic world. 

The exigencies of talking pictures and the definite adoption 
by the Motion Picture Industry of Panchromatic Films have 
dictated to Mr. Warmisham the necessity of supplementing his 
laboratory research with a thorough survey of the production 
fields of Hollywood, New York and Europe. 

His investigation resulted in the offering to the cine- 
matographic world of the new series of F 2. “Speed Panchro” 
and F 2.5 “Panchro” Cinematographic lenses, which have been 
designed by H. W Lee of Taylor-Taylor-Hobson. 

The author offers the following essay to the consideration 
of the Cinematographers and Technicians of the screen in an 
effort to generalize a clearer understanding of the factors 
involved in the correction of the chromatic aberrations in 
modern Cinematographic lenses of wide aperture. — The Author) . 

N THE computation of photographic lenses, the optical de- 
signer traces step by step the path of a selected group of 
light rays through the system of lenses which he has, at 
first, rather roughly selected as nearly answering the require- 
ments necessary for the lens to be suitable for the special 
purpose for which it is designed. 

For Cinematographic Lenses, it may be stated that the 
ultimate goal of the optician is to minimize the effects of the 
various aberrations which are inherent with the physical 
properties of glass and at the same time reach the maximum 
possible luminosity or speed. 

The analysis of the ray’s paths and their position in the 
image area permit the optician to accurately determine the 
remaining aberrations and therefore to modify the design of 
the system so as to obtain the greatest possible “correction” 
without altering the predetermined lens aperture. 

The aberrations which are inherent with an optical system 
the elements of which are bounded by spherical surfaces are: 

These are further complicated by secondary aberrations which 
may be considered as subsequent errors of the same order as 
their primaries. 

The errors due to aberrations cannot be fully eliminated or, 
to use the common expression, they cannot be fully “cor- 
rected” and a photographic lens is, therefore, at its best but 
a compromise. 

The magnitude of the errors which remain in the finished 
objective is decided upon by the designer according to the use 
for which the lens is being created. 

The optician is constantly confronting a long series of arduous 
problems which are created by the fact that the means adopted 
for correcting one error may produce errors of a different order 
and, therefore, his ingenuity, coupled with his knowledge of 
the conditions under which the lens is to be used are the 
determining factors in regard to the suitability of the finished 




FIG. I FIG. 2 

Relation between wave lengths and focusing distances for a FIG. 2. Relation between wave lengths and focusing distances for a 
refracting telescope, designed for photographic use. refracting telescope designed for visual observation. 


November, 1930 




FIG. 3 

FIG. 3. The D G curve of the secondary spectrum in lenses in use in 
pre-panchromatic times. 

It is to be especially noted that the types of lenses which are 
best adapted to reduce the Chromatic aberration to a mini- 
mum, are the worst offenders in respect of curvature of field 
and astigmatism corrections, and it is literally true that the 
aperture and the quality of the color correction are both 
limited by the necessity of producing a flat field. 

Since this article is intended to briefly discuss the correction 
of the chromatic aberrations for lenses as developed for cine- 
matographic work, we shall disregard all other aberrations and 
construe that the optical system under consideration is exempt 
of all errors but those introduced through the impossibility for 
modern high speed photographic lenses to focus accurately in 
the same plane all the various color images. 

This deficiency is, as stated above, entirely independent from 
conception of design or workmanship and is inherent with the 
physical properties of glass. 

The index of refraction of every single piece of glass, varies 
for all the lights of different color and thus, if a single piece 
of glass is ground and polished in the shape of converging lens, 
its power of convergence varies for the different colored rays. 
Since the convergence of the blue rays is greater than that of 
the red rays, the single lens will have a shorter focal length 
for the former than for the latter. 

If the differences between the refractions for the various 
colored rays, which phenomenon is called “dispersion,” were 
proportional to the refraction for all glasses, there would be 
no remedy for chromatic aberration. 

However, the ratio of refraction to dispersion varies for 
glasses of different composition and density and if two glasses 
are chosen, one having a high refraction for low dispersion and 
the other a low refraction for the same dispersion and from 
them two lenses are made, one positive or convergent and the 
other negative or divergent which combined form a positive 
whole, it is quite evident that such combination can be 
designed in which the chromatic errors of one lens are 
neutralized by the similar but opposite errors of the other 

resulting in a combination reasonably free from chromatic 

Such lenses are called ACHROMATIC. 

It must be borne in mind, however, that “dispersion” is 
not a finite entity, which can be fully expressed with numerical 
mathematical exactness and since it only expresses an infinite 
number of differences between the refractions for the various 
colored rays it is confined to express a mean between them, 
or between two chosen colors. 

Dispersion for a certain glass is usually determined by sub- 
tracting the refracting index of the colored light corresponding 
to the “F” line (Blue-Green) of the spectrum from that of the 
“C” (Red line) the wave lengths of which are respectively 
486.15 and 656.30 micro-millimeters. 

When this mean dispersion is considered in the calculation 
of achromatic lenses, only these two colors will be accurately 
brought to the same focus while the others will fail to do so 
and cause therefore the existence of a residual aberration. 

This phenomenon is known by opticians as the “Secondary 
Spectrum” effect. 

Some reduction of the secondary spectrum effect is indeed 
obtained by bringing to the same focus three instead of two 
colored light rays, but this entails an increase in the number 
of glass surfaces and a reduction in the speed of the lens which 
is appropriate for some special work such as the trichrome 
reproduction of paintings and colored objects but which would 
be in opposition with the speed requisite of objectives for 
cinematographic work. 

The only optical instrument in which opticians have suc- 
ceeded in correcting the secondary spectrum is the “apochro- 
matic” microscope objective and for this the correction has 
been made by substituting the crown glass which would 
ordinarily be used by a cristallyne mineral, Fluorite. 

This practice cannot, however, be extended to photographic 
objectives simply because Fluorite cannot be obtained in suf- 
ficiently large pieces of optical clear quality. For example, 
to make a 3" lens working at a maximum aperture of F 2., 

(Continued on Page 22) 


FIG. 4 

FIG. 4. Secondary spectrum curve illustrating the nearest possible 
compromise for coincident visual and photographic foci. 



November, 1930 

H ARRY PERRY, A. S. C., has just returned from Hawaii, where he photographed some beautiful 
subjects in Multicolor. Some idea of the scenic beauty of his pictures may be obtained from 
the photographs on this and the opposite page. Above is the Grand Canyon of Hawaii, located on 
the island of Kanaai. This was admirable in Multicolor. 

H ERE is a view from the island of Kanai. You can wade out a half mile in this surf. Mr. Perry 
says it was an admirable subject for photographing in natural colors. 

November, 1930 



T HIS is the crater of Haleakala, “House of the Sun,” on the island of Maui. Mr. Perry and his 
company had to take camera equipment on pack mules to get this. “But it was well worth it,” 
says Mr. Perry. 

H OLD everything! Here is Mr. Perry, himself, snapped in a moment of fun, as he was doing a 
little rehearsing with a few good looking hula dancers. Who says these cinematographers’ lives 
are all hard work! 

The Measurement of Density in Variable 

Density Sound Film 

Communication No. 435 from the Kodak Research Laboratories. (Read before 
the Society of Motion Picture Engineers at Washington) 

Reprinted from The Journal of the S. M. P. E. 


T HE DEPENDENCE of the optical density of developed 
photographic materials upon the method of its measure- 
ment was first demonstrated by Callier. 1 He discussed the 
effect of light scattering by the photographic image and pre- 
sented data which seemed to justify the empirical relation: 

D|| = QD -||- 

where D|| (specular density) is the value obtained with the 
developed image in a specular beam, D-||- (diffuse density) the 
value obtained with diffuse illumination, and Q a constant 
factor greater than unity. 

This form of relation holds with practical accuracy for many 
materials though it has since been shown by Bloch and Ren- 
wick 2 and by one of us 3 that an exponential relation fits the 
facts better over an extended density range for the data of 
Callier and for other data on a variety of materials. A theoretical 
relation involving optical constants of the grain clumps pro- 
posed by Silberstein and one of us, 4 finds excellent experimental 
justification, and if enough information regarding the optical 
characteristics of the developed image was available this rela- 
tion could be applied to the solution of any practical problem. 

Density Measurements in Relation to Sound Pictures 

In the theory of sound reproduction with the variable den- 
sity method as outlined by MacKenzie, 5 Jones and Sandvik, 8 
and others 7 the measurement of sound track density plays an 
important part, for it is from these measurements that the 
values of negative gamma, positive gamma, and the resultant 
or over-all gamma are determined. 

The value of density which is effective in the reproduction 
of the sound track is neither “diffuse” nor “specular” in the 
sense that these two terms have been used in the literature. 
So far as we are aware, there are no published data correlating 
“sound-reproducer” density with either of the aforementioned 
values. It may be of interest, therefore, to consider briefly 
the matter of density measurement in its relation to sound 
picture projection. 

Angular Distribution of Intensity from Positive Film 
Illuminated by Parallel Light 

Because of the fact that the photographic image is a non- 
homogeneous material formed by clumps of metallic silver 
grains embedded in a matrix of gelatin, the light which is 
transmitted by the image is scattered by reflection and dif- 
fraction. Fig. 1 shows distribution curves for images developed 
on motion picture positive film. To obtain these curves, the 
sample was illuminated by approximately parallel light and 
the intensity distribution was read with a photometer mounted 
on a spectrometer arm so that it could be rotated about an 
axis passing through the image. The normally transmitted 
intensity is so much greater than the intensity a few degrees 
away from the normal that it is practical to show only a section 
of these curves in the graph. 

At first glance, distribution curves, such as are illustrated 
in Fig. 1, may be misleading. The relative intensities even at 

angles close to the normal are so small compared to the in- 
tensity of the specularly transmitted beam that one might feel 
justified in neglecting their effect. These curves are only cross 
section views of the distribution, and to get an accurate con- 
ception of the total amount of light scattered away from the 
normal, the intensity values given by the ordinates in Fig. 1 
must be multiplied by an area factor which varies with the 
sine of the angle from the normal. 

The following relation may be used to determine the total 
transmission from the angular distribution curves: 


7"Total = 2tt S Jd sin 0 A0 

0 ° 


FIC. 1. Distribution of light scattered by positive film of different 
densities (expressed as per cent of normally incident light.) 


November, 1930 



* c 

FIC. 2. Diagrammatic representation of light scattering by 
photographic density. 

in which 'J'O is the average value of the ordinate over the in- 
crement, A0. The same relation may, of course, be used to 
determine the effective value of transmission between limits 
fixed by the solid angle subtended at the measured sample by 
the window of the receiving element. 

The significance of light scattering by the photographic 
deposit in the problem of density measurement may be made 
clear by reference to Fig. 2. 

In this figure, parallel light, represented by arrows at the 
left, is incident upon the photographic density, A. The trans- 
mitted light is indicated vectorially by the arrows at the right 
of the figure. If a printing material is placed in contact with 
the illuminated sample, all of the transmitted light, regardless 
of direction, 8 is effective in exposing the positive material. A 
measurement of density, to be significant for contact printing, 
must therefore be based upon the total transmission, that is, 
it must include an angle of 90 degrees each way from the 
normal in Fig. 2. This value, which is spoken of as “diffuse 
density,” is the value given by most of the commonly used 

If the photographic deposit, A, is included in an optical 
system and is imaged by a lens (B, Fig. 2) which subtends 
a relatively small solid angle at A, most of the scattered light 
is lost and should not be included in a measurement of the 
transmission (or density) if a projection print is to be made 
of the image. Under these circumstances the specular value 
of density (Djj) is nearer to the correct value. 

In sound reproduction, with the sample illuminated by light 
from an optical system and with the transmitted intensity 
collected by the window of a photo-cell (represented diagram- 
matically by C in Fig. 2) a value intermediate between the 
diffuse and specular densities is effective. 

Density Measurement Under Practical Conditions 

Several factors may influence the value of density as meas- 
ured by the photo-cell in the reproduction system. The degree 
of collimation of the incident beam of light, the uniformity 
of the sensitive surface of the photo-cell, the quality of the 
incident radiation, the spectral sensitivity of the photo-cell, and 
probably numerous other considerations may have some 

Under conditions which exist in practice, we believe these 
factors to be of small importance in comparison to the effect 
of altering the angle of the cone of transmitted light which 

* The integrating densitometer, 3 in which the sample to be measured 
is placed over the window of an integrating sphere, and the most 
common type of densitometer, in which the sample is placed in contact 
with a diffusing opal glass, both give values of diffuse density in 
agreement with each other. 

FIC. 4 Density of positive film image as measured by a photo-cell 
whose window subtends various solid angles at the measured sample. 
(Log 10 of one-half of the solid angle is plotted.) 

is collected by the photo-cell. It is nevertheless desirable to 
state as specifically as possible the conditions under which we 
have made our measurements. 

Fig. 3 illustrates the optical system which was used to illu- 
minate the sample with a slit image. This system was built 
up from standard parts and it duplicates the system which 
is actually used in many theatre installations. Most of the im- 
portant dimensions are given in the figure. Both lenses, B and 
D, are of 10.5 mm. diameter and the solid angle subtended 
by the objective lens at the density, E, is 31 degrees. 

A potassium photo-cell with a window 25 mm. in diameter 
was placed at various distances from the measured sample, 
thus altering the solid angle of the cone of light which was 
collected. Photo-current was measured with a Leeds and 
Northrup H. S. galvanometer calibrated with the cell over the 
intensity range actually employed. 

A series of densities developed on Eastman positive film in 
M. P. 1 6 to a diffuse gamma of 2.0 was measured. 

A typical set of data is shown graphically in Fig. 4 in which 
the measured values of density are plotted against log™ of the 
half angle subtended by the window of the photo-cell at the 
sample. The lowest values of density, D were obtained 
with the Capstaff-Purdy densitometer and are shown plotted 
at the abscissa = log™ 90° = 1 .95. 

In most of the reproducers used in theatres, the angle sub- 
tended by the photo-cell window at the film is about 35° 
(log™ half angle — 1.54). The comparison between the value 
of diffuse density and the density actually measured by the 
photo-cell in the projector is given in Table I. For the lower 
densities the factorial difference between the two values is 
greater, which fact checks the previously reported data on 
positive film. 3 For practical purposes perhaps the Callier 1 type 
of relation: 

D r = 1 .3D -||- 

in which D r is the effective reproducer density, will hold with 
sufficient accuracy. 

Table I 

Relation between Difuse Density and Reproducer Density for Positive Film 



Or m 




3 1 





1 33 




1 .01 



1 20 



1 44 


1 26 

(Continued on Page 32) 

S. M. P. E. Offers Film Ratio 

Suggests Ratio of 1 .8 to 1 

W IDE FILM, the bugbear of producers for some time 
past, was presented to the Fall meeting of the Society 
of Motion Picture Engineers, held in New York, 
October 20th to 23rd, and the Society, through its committee 
on standards and nomenclature, added another problem to the 
sponsors of 70, 65 and other width films by suggesting a width 
somewhere between 35 mm. and 70 mm. 

A. C. Hardy reported for the committee and stated that it 
had become increasingly evident to the committee during its 
deliberations that the adoption of release prints with a width 
in the neighborhood of 65 to 70 millimeters would be 
economically impracticable for a large proportion of theatres 
and that it seemed desirable to give consideration to a film 
size intermediate between these dimensions and the present 
35 millimeters standard. “We are working on a layout that 
will permit the use of the 1 .8 to 1 ratio,” said Hardy, “and 
that will provide for a wider sound track and more suitable 
margins. We are attempting to assign dimensions to this film 
that will permit the most economic use of existing 35 milli- 
meter equipment. While the specification of the release print 
dimensions is the problem of most importance this committee 
has under consideration a negative of such proportions that 
it may be printed by optical reduction on the new intermediate 
film size or by contact on a larger film for the de luxe houses. 
An agreement on the above plan has been reached so recently 
that there has been insufficient time to complete the final 
details for presentation to the Society.” 

It was pointed out that the wide film would have many 
obvious advantages over the present standard; such as a sound 
track of more satisfactory width; possibility of greater variety 
of composition and more action without exceeding a practical 
limit of magnification. It was also declared that the com- 
mittee had been guided not alone by engineering principles, 
but by consideration of the costs to the industry of a new 

The meeting was one of the most successful yet held by 
this organization, with more than 300 members registered at 
the meeting. No effort had been spared by the committee in 
charge of the arrangements, and the meeting was a history- 
making event for the society. 

An outstanding feature of the meeting was the reelection 
to the office of President of the society of J. I. Crabtree of 
the Eastman Kodak Company. Mr. Crabtree’s year of office 
has been a decidedly successful one. Other officers named are: 
vice-president, W. C. Hubbard; secretary, j. H. Kurlander; 
treasurer, Herford T. Cowling, A. S. C., of the Eastman Kodak 
Company and a member of the Board of Editors of the American 

Among the other highlights of the meeting were the reports 
of the color and studio lighting committees and a wealth of 
interesting and highly instructive papers dealing with prac- 
tically every phase of the picture industry. The lighting com- 
mittee revealed that in studios where incandescent lighting has 
been largely used there has been a tendency during the past 
six months to increase the number of high intensity spots and 
sun arcs for floodlighting purposes. This has been made 
possible, the committee explains, by the efficient silencing 
devices which have been installed on direct current generating 
equipment and the arc lamps in the studios. The committee 
also stated that there has been considerable work done lately 
on the problem of utilizing photometric measuring devices in 
the studios, but little progress has been made in the practical 
application of these instruments. 

The color committee explained that the Photocolor system, 
which had not been outlined in detail before to the society, 
uses a camera which photographs a pair of images in conjunc- 
tion with special taking filters and an optical system employ- 
ing the split beam method of photographing. The negative 
is printed upon a specially designed optical printer which prints 
the two respective images in registration upon duplitized posi- 
tive stock. The print is next transferred to the green process- 
ing room and receives the application of the blue-green compli- 
mentary dye on the side containing the image from the red 
sensation negative. The print then receives the orange-red dye 
upon the image from the green sensation negative. 

A new color process, the committee points out, is being 
introduced from Germany. It is known as “The New Color 
Process.” This is claimed to be usable either for motion or 
still pictures. Mention was also made of the Herault Color 
Process, in which a three-color sector wheel is rotated in front 
of the camera and the contact print negative is dye tinted so 
that each successive group of frames is tinted one of the 
primary colors. The three-color positive is then projected 
with a continuous projector. The method is said to suppress 
the chromatic flicker when projected at 24 frames per second; 
only spherical lenses are used in this projector. 

The Horst System of Color Photography is described as tak- 
ing three pictures simultaneously with three-color filters, using 
a prism system in the camera. In the positive, each frame 
carries three images, each corresponding to one of the color 
separation images of the negatives. This method is being 
sponsored in Great Britain by Universal Productions, Ltd. 

Another system mentioned by the committee is the Magna- 
chrome Film. 

This system gives wide film sound and color. It is an 
additive method with many of the old features utilized, but 
designed to rid itself of color bombardment and color fringing. 

This is accomplished by having the film pass through the 
normal projector at the standard speed of 90 feet a minute 
with, however, an intermittent movement, which operates with 
an 8 sided cam instead of the usual 4 sided cam. This gives 
48 pictures a second of half the usual height, instead of 24 
full frame pictures a second as is customary. At this speed 
of 48 changes a second, there is little or no color bombard- 

The negatives are preferably made by the film pack system. 
The only change in the camera is that it is fitted with a half 
size aperture gate and the normal speed of 24 pictures a 
second insures good exposures. Other methods of making the 
negatives may be used. 

For the positives, the negatives which have been exposed as 
above described, are printed in sequence giving on projection 
a series of 48 pictures a second, with the sound at 90 feet a 
minute giving perfect reproduction. No fringing is discernible 
as the negatives have been made in pairs. In addition to this 
the film is tinted with alternate spaces of red and blue-green, 
so that after leaving the laboratory the films cannot be joined 
or run out of color. 

No public demonstrations have been given although private 
exhibitions have brought forth econiums. As the process has 
no toning, using black and white pictures and makes use of 
process in which the problems are familiar and well worked- 
out, the film can be introduced at low cost. 

The above description covers much that has been done but, 
as many changes are being made, no demonstration will be 
given until the Spring meeting of the Society. 

(Continued on Page 50) 


Screen Definition 


Consulting Engineer 

T HE OBJECT of this article is to acquaint the broad ranks 
of cameramen with facts, based upon the knowledge and 
experience of individual cinematographers and to combine 
this information with the results of optical and psychological 

All of these de-facto results of experience and research, 
have a distinct influence upon screen definition. 

The author hopes that a study of this article by the aspir- 
ing cameraman may be of some assistance to him in his strug- 
gles on the road to success; he found that a number of cine- 
matographers excel in the practical use and application of one 
or more of the practices herein analyzed, but that the knowl- 
edge of all of them is exceptional, whereas it should be uni- 
versal for the best of the profession. 

For the purpose of this study we must assume that we strive 
to impart to the screen picture the same definition as that 
which we see when we look at reality. 

This assumption forces us immediately to a comparison be- 
tween the optical characteristics of eye and lens, as far as 
definition results are concerned. 

Definition as far as perceptible by the human eye when 
looking either at reality or a (screen) photograph, depends 
primarily upon the contrast between the visual elements or 
parts of the field or picture, on the white to black scale, in- 
cluding all visual parts of the color (spectrum) scale. This 
contrast perception is enhanced by the sharpness of the separa- 
tion between such contrasting elements. 

In the human eye the sharpness of the image depends, firstly, 
upon the optical exactness of the lens action, which has never 

been definitely determined, and, secondly, upon the resolving 
power of the retina which, however, has been determined. 

The actual sensory perception is governed by this resolving 
power, and can be most clearly expressed as follows: 

At five inches distance, which is the shortest focus the nor- 
mal human eye is capable of, the eye can visually separate two 
points one thousandth of an inch apart. 

At a distance of 100 feet, therefore, the eye cannot see two 
points, however “contrasty” they may be to their background, 
which are closer together than about one-fourth inch, as two 
points, but as one point. In other words, details smaller than 
one-quarter inch cannot be seen as such at 100 feet distance. 

The human eye, therefore, sees less and less actually ex- 
isting details the farther the object is from the eye. 

This maximum sharpness, however, is only produced upon 
a very small central part of the retina of about 8.5 mm. diam- 
eter, which is called the fovea (pit), Diagram 1, where the 
so-called “cones” or light sensitive nerve elements are directly 
exposed to the light impact and very much closer together 
than in other parts of the retina. Outside of this area the 
“cones” are covered with a fibrous or granular layer, which 
more or less absorbs the light and impairs the sharp focus. 
This arrangement, existing only in man (and the higher forms 
of apes), enables him to mentally concentrate on an object. 

The area of sharp sight being so small, produces the invol- 
untary scanning of an object (however small) by that minute 
pencil of sharp perception at an immeasurable speed, when we 
want to see more than a mere point of an object. 

This necessary scanning has a peculiar influence upon the 
finally registered definition of the object or picture. 

When our “sharp pencil” hits a point in the field, the eye 
produces, by instantaneous accommodation, a sharp retinal im- 
pression of this point. At the same instant, however, unsharp 
images of adjacent points are impressed upon the retina, such 
unsharpness increasing with the distance of such adjacent 
points, from the focus point by reason of out-of-focus condi- 
tions and reduced light transmission. 

As it takes special training to be able to concentrate our 
sight and attention to a single “point” only, we always per- 
ceive in every-day use of our sight, by the well-known per- 
sistence of vision, a composite picture of sharp and unsharp 
impressions, producing that softness of a picture which has 
been and is the ideal definition the cameraman strives for, 
but which he has so far been able to only approach but not 

The reasons why he cannot reproduce natural vision in this 
respect are manifold. 

Let us first consider some of the methods and means em- 
ployed in modern photography which bear directly upon defi- 

To be able to photograph requires primarily a photographic 
lens. The performances of the first photographic lenses were 
so poor, as far as balanced definition is concerned, that an 
increase of lens definition has been consistently striven for, has 
always been, and is today the ever receding goal of the lens 
designer, computer and manufacturer. 

And yet definition characteristics have today reached a state 
of perfection which in many respects is unnecessarily over 
refined. This may sound ridiculous but is nevertheless a fact. 

Lens corrections, especially inside the central zones, have 
reached such a state of perfection that the optical image, pro- 
(Continued on Page 24) 




November, 1930 

Hal Hall 

I says: 

Thank You! 

T HIS WRITER, who happens to be the editor of the 
Cinematographic Annual, which came off the press three 
months after it was promised, is simply overcome by the many 
wonderful things that his contemporaries have had to say about 
the Annual. And, if you will pardon the personal pronoun, 
I wish to take this opportunity to thank you editors of Camera, 
Camera Craft, Filmo Topics, Film Daily, Variety, Film Spec- 
tator and all the others for your worlds of praise. Honestly, 
we did try to produce a book that would be worthwhile and 
a credit to the Society which sponsored its publication, and 
if we have succeeded we feel that all is well, after all. 

My excellent board of editors and I feared that perhaps 
we would be severely criticised. You know that adverse criti- 
cism is just about the easiest thing there is. We realized that 
perhaps we had overlooked many features that readers might 
want. And now to see the nice things that have been said 
about the book is really and truly most gratifying, and we do 
thank you, and hope all those who obtain the Annual will 
be pleased and receive much benefit therefrom. Next year 
we promise a better one — and it will be out on time. 


A FTER a veritable orgy of color, in which producers and 
art directors apparently lost all sense of balance or 
good judgment, color has “taken one on the chin,’’ as they 
say in the language of the prize ring. This is too bad, for 
color, judiciously used, is a real asset to a picture which nat- 
urally calls for color. 

True to tradition, the producers have turned away from 
color in just as apparently silly way as they turned to it at 
the start of the great color period that has just ended. But 
color will not die out. Color is here to stay, despite the fact 
that the public has been fed up on a lot of very bad color, 
color which was splashed in just for the sake of making the 
picture colorful. Three intelligent papers were read on color 
at the recent S. M. P. E. meeting in New York, and a few 
producers are wisely figuring out that, if intelligently used, 
color will enhance a picture that calls for it. Take, for in- 
stance, the Eddie Cantor picture, “Whoopee.” There is an 
example of what can be done with color if it is used wisely 
and the proper care taken in the making of the prints. Von 
Stroheim returned from abroad the other day, and had scarcely 
set foot on shore when he declared that color is needed in the 
ideal picture. His objection to color in the past has been that 
it has been unnatural. If a real three-color process can be 
developed and the producers can be influenced to use color 
only where it is called for, the future of color should be bright. 

Widies vs Pictures 

T HE WRITER is not a big producer, or anything like that. 

But — he sits back during these days of discussion of wide 
film, color and the like and wonders why a few more of the 
producers do not concentrate on the business of giving the 
dear public some PICTURES. Maybe said writer is all wet, 
as they say in the language of the street. But a few more 
good pictures would surely be much more comfortable both 
to the public and the box offices than so much discussion of 
whether they are to be on 50, 56, 65 or 70 millimeter film. 
We believe in advancement, of course. But while the scientific 
geniuses are figuring out the wide film problem, why not have 
a few good pictures on 35 millimeter film! 

Waiting for the Sunrise 

r-RANKLIN COURTNEY ELLIS, of the office of Public Infor- 
|~ mation of the Eastman Kodak Company, deserves honorable 
mention for uniqueness of ideas along publicity lines. He writes 
ye Editor to the effect that Gene Lockhart, composer of “The 
World is Waiting for the Sunrise,” has just bought himself 
a Cine-Kodak, and opines that perhaps now said Mr. Lockhart 
will be getting out of his downy cot in the morning and 
waiting to make a picture of said sunrise in Kodacolor. Oh, 
Mr. Ellis! But it got the Cine-Kodak and Eastman some 
publicity, anyway! Incidentally, did you notice what Brown 
did to Princeton the other week? 

Mr. Sherwood 

R OBERT E. SHERWOOD, who is nationally known for his ex- 
cellent movie criticisms and his pointed and intelligent 
remarks anent the picture business in general, recently gave 
us an article in his Bell Syndicate daily column that is well 
worth reprinting in any paper or magazine that deals with 
things pertaining to pictures. No comment is necessary — his 
article, excerpts from which we print below — speaks for itself: 

“In the course of a post mortem on the late and generally 
lamented international yacht races, a London newspaper re- 
marked that ‘British seamanship was defeated by Yankee gad- 
gets.’ This referred, of course, to the fact that the ‘Enterprise’ 
used various mechanical labor-saving devices for the speedy 
raising and lowering of sails, whereas the ‘Shamrock’ relied 
exclusively on old-fashioned elbow grease. 

“Precisely the same complaint is heard whenever the sub- 
ject of American movie domination comes up for discussion in 
the European press (as it frequently does) . Hollywood’s posi- 
tion of leadership in the celluloid world is invariably attributed 
to the superiority of ‘Yankee gadgets’ — the sound recording 
apparatus being the greatest gadget of all. 

“There is plenty of truth in this. For this development of 
the purely mechanical part of film production in Hollywood 
has become one of the major miracles of history. If only some 
of the other departments had kept pace with this development 
. . . but there is no point in indulging in depressing and fruit- 
less speculation. 

“Some time ago, when the screen was silent, a distinguished 
author returned from his first trip to Hollywood and announced 
the discovery that the cameramen there were far, far ahead 
of the directors, actors, scenario writers and executives in effi- 
ciency, intelligence, and general desirability. He didn’t have 
to go to Hollywood to make this discovery. He could have 
attained it by visiting any movie theatre and looking at the 
results of Hollywood’s labors. 

“Now the cameraman co-operates with another kind of 
technician — the sound man — and he, too, has gone far 
ahead of the rest of the procession. If one-tenth of the 
genius that he expends in the manipulation of his compli- 
cated apparatus could be diverted and used in the prepara- 
tion of stories . . . but again I’m wandering off into 

“There has been much talk lately of the dreadful mechanical 
Robot that is ruining Art in our modern civilization. Our finer 
aesthetic sensibilities, we are told, are being mangled in the 
ruthless cog-wheels of the Machine Age. 

“Insofar as Hollywood is concerned, however, it is the 
Robot, the Spirit of the Gadget, that most nearly approaches 
that goal of perfection toward which all art strives. 

“How often do we see pictures in which the technical qual- 
ities — the photography, sound reproduction, mechanical effects 
— are inferior to the flesh, the blood and the grey matter? 
Almost never. For an excellent example of just what I mean, 
have a look at ‘Hell’s Angels.’ 

“There is one thing seriously lacking in the Robot, and 
that is pride. He should be equipped with it at once, so that 
he will be able to stand on it and refuse to reproduce the 
drivel that is fed to him by the creative minds of Hollywood.” 

November, 1 930 




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J1 T WT, 

A Letter from Hollywood 

The Only Town Where Men Eat Off Their Beards 


Illustrated by Bill Tara 


2945 Doe Street, 

Pittsburgh, Penn. 

Dear John: 

I promised to write you as soon as I reached Hollywood and 
had got myself settled in a good job in one of the studios. 
Well, I have been here four months, now, and am not settled 
yet. Some how or other, you can’t get by the tough guys at 
these studio gates. They don’t 
recognize talent and brains 
when it comes right up in front 
of them, so I am still on the 
outside, but am determined. 

Now, as to Hollywood. 

Well, I don’t know where to 
start. It is a great town, 

John. Big stars seem to figure 
that the best outdoor sport is 
trying to run down pedestrians 
with lavender colored, high- 
powered autos. And when 
they miss you and you yell at 
them they seem to take of- 
fense. They are funny that 
way. So far, they have all 
missed me, but I am afraid 
that they are getting the 
range, and if they do, don’t 
bother sending me any flow- 
ers, for I won’t know they 
have arrived. Anyhow, 
understand that whoever hits 
you out here sends you all the 
flowers you need. 

There is another funny 
thing out here. It is a group 
of men who eat off their 
beards. I’m not fooling, John. 

They sure do, and when they 

don’t eat off them they just don’t eat, and that’s a fact. No, 

I don’t mean that they lay their beards out on the table and 
use them for table cloths. I mean that the beards furnish the 
eats. When I first arrived here I thought I had landed in a 
House of David Colony, honest, John. I walked down by 
Warner Brothers Studio the second day I was here, and it 
looked as though a half dozen of those David bearded ball teams 
were getting ready for a convention. Lined up by the curb 

were several dozen of the fun- 
niest looking fellows. Long 
beards, short beards, bushy 
beards, French beards, Russian 
beards, Spanish beards, Egyp- 
tian beards — some looking as 
though they had been all night 
in the gutter; others looking 
as though they had just come 
from the cleaner. 

I was curious about so 
much hair on the face, for you 
know we all used to shave on 
our street back home, and if 
a man didn’t shave he was 
accused of being out the night 
before breaking the prohibi- 
tion act. Not so here, how- 
ever, I found out. You see, 
it is the only town in the 
world where men eat off their 
beards. And by that I mean 
that these guys find they can’t 
get by the gates on brains and 
ability, so they let the whisk- 
ers grow and when they get 
enough to hide their identity 
they walk into the casting of- 
fice, wave the beards and say, 
"Any Russian pictures today?” 
(Continued on Page 50) 

Some need to go to the cleaner 

November, 1 930 



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November, 1930 

Color Correction 

(Continued from Page 1 1 ) 


FIC. 5. Illustrating the dimensions involved in the secondary 
spectrum curve. 

the optician would need pieces of Fluorite one-half inch thick 
and 1 %" in diameter, which pieces are absolutely unobtainable. 

The designer of high speed lenses for the cinematographic 
camera has to provide reasonable definition over a wide range 
of the spectrum and the only materials he can use are known 
to be incapable of giving perfect results. His task is there- 
fore to find some compromise which will give the required 
speed without making the secondary spectrum effect intolerably 

An excellent illustration of the method of compromise 
usually adopted is to be found in the large refracting telescopes 
as used by astronomers. On account of the long focal lengths 
involved, which may be anything from 15 to 50 feet, the 
secondary spectrum effects in such lenses are very large, and 
the best compromise is to be found by bringing to the same 
focus two rays of colored light lying at close proximity to each 
other. Since photographic emulsions can be made which are 
sensitive to the blue and blue-green rays and are not affected 
by the yellows and reds, the spherical aberration for these 
lenses is corrected for the blue end of the spectrum only and 
the foci of the blue and the blue-green rays are made to 

It results quite evident that since the visibility of the human 
eye is most keen for the yellow region of the spectrum, any 
attempt to focus such lenses visually, would result in utter 
failure in obtaining sharp pictures. The photographic focus 
is therefore found by trial exposures and once found is 
permanently located. 

This is to be contrasted with the telescope of similar dimen- 
sions intended only for visual observation. In this case, the 
actinic rays of the Blue and Blue-Green regions of the spectrum 

are ignored in favor of a strong concentration of focus in the 
region of the bright Red, the Yellow and the bright Green 
which colors are the most visible with the naked eye. 

The graphs at Figures 1 and 2 show the relation between 
wave length, measured vertically, and focusing distance, 
measured horizontally, for both cases, since the dimensions 
involved are extremely small, in order to present them in a 
legible manner, the drawings have been traced schematically 
and the magnitude of the errors has been magnified. Also 
the conditions illustrated in the figure have been exaggerated 
and would not be met in practice in telescopic lenses, though 
Figure 2 illustrates the correct color distribution for a pro- 
jection lens such as used in cinematography. 

In Figure 1, the small departure of the curve at the lower 
end from the dotted vertical means that in this region the 
blues and blue-green rays are strongly concentrated in, or near 
the focal plane, and this is the position which practical tests 
would reveal as the plane for the best focus. 

Figure 2 shows that the curve, though presenting the same 
characteristics as that in Figure 1 , has been rotated to a different 
position, through appropriate and relatively simple modifica- 
tions in the design of the objective. These optical modifications 
result in rolling the curve of the secondary spectrum along 
the vertical line without changing the curvature which is fixed 
by the abnormal refraction of glass. 

The objective so constructed and the characteristics of which 
are shown in Figure 2, answers the requirements of visual obser- 
vation, but could not be used for photographic purposes with 
the sensitive photographic materials. Red sensitive and pan- 
chromatic emulsions could only be used if their actinicity to 
the blues is arrested by use of appropriate filters which would 
necessitate such an increase of exposure to render their use 
more impractical than the making of special objective for 
each purpose. 

Now, it is quite logical to suppose that there is some inter- 
mediate position within these two extremes, where the 
secondary spectrum curve is not leaning forward as in Figure 
1 or backward as in Figure 2 and this is the compromise photo- 
visual position which would be adopted if attempts were made 
to make the long focus telescopic objectives have coincident 
visual and photographic focus. The curve would then be rolled 
so that it would occupy the position shown at Figure 4, which 
represents the nearest possible compromise to this condition. 

The great focal length of telescopic objectives precludes, 
however, the practical application of this compromise because 
the secondary spectrum errors are so large that extremely 
complex constructions are necessary to go only some way 
toward improving this defect. 

It is for this reason and because the secondary spectrum can- 
not be accurately corrected that the largest telescopes are 
always of the reflecting type. 

Photographic objectives as used for Cinematography, mainly 
differ from the telescopic objectives in that their focal length 
is much shorter and since the reduction scale proportionately 
reduces the actual magnitude of the chromatic errors, it is 
possible to construct them so that they will be found acceptable, 
while following the same principles of design as heretofore 

In pre-panchromatic days when the use of ordinary and 
orthochromatic films was prevalent, a lens so designed that 
the secondary spectrum curve would be as illustrated in Figure 
3, which is the D G curve almost universally adopted by 
opticians, was found satisfactory and it was indeed the best 
compromise obtainable, because of the lack of sensitivity of 
the photographic emulsions for the red rays and because of 
the quality of light used which was either unfiltered daylight 
or white-flame arcs. 

But with the advent of Panchromatic films and the increased 
use of sources of light rich in red radiations, the long focus 
of the red light gave the well known lack of sharpness which 
is quite disturbing in all cases and decidedly detrimental in 
most of them. 

November, 1 930 



C HIEF Cameraman Edward Snyder, A. S. C., and his crew gather at the only wet spot in the middle of the 
Painted Desert for a quaff or two during the filming of “The Painted Desert” in Arizona. Bill Boyd and 
Helen Twelvetrees are featured in this new Pathe special. 

Mr. A. Warmisham, Optical Director of Taylor-Taylor- 
Hobson, of England, makers of the famous “Cooke” lenses, 
was among the first to take a personal and progressive interest 
in the possibilities of improving the design of lenses for cinema- 
tographic work under the new conditions created by the 
stabilizing of the use of Panchromatic films and incandescent 

The result of his investigation personally conducted in the 
Hollywood and New York production fields has been the 
designing of lenses the secondary spectrum curve of which 
has been rolled over as shown in Figure 4, that is to say, lenses 
which bring to the same focal plane the blue rays of the line 
G and the reds of the line C and which through a remarkable 
correction of all other aberrations outside of the chromatic 
are extremely suitable for photographing with filtered or un- 
filtered daylight or with arc or incandescent lights as well. 
These lenses, which have been appropriately named “Speed 
Panchros,” present the best compromise which can be reached 
today in correcting the chromatic aberrations. 

In order to illustrate the dimensions involved, we may men- 
tion that the depth of the arc illustrated in Figure 4, between 
the lines C and G on a 3" F 2. Speed Panchro lens, is three 
thousandths of an inch. This does not mean, however, that 
there is an uncertainty in the placing of the focal plane of 
that amount. This figure is obtained by critically measuring 
the differences in focal length on a color testing bench 
especially designed for the purpose and which disregards the 
limited resolving power of the eye as well as that of the 
photographic emulsions. In actual practice the uncertainty of 
focus is shown by photographic tests, to be somewhat less 
than one thousandth of an inch. 

One reason for this difference in the computation of the 
magnitude of the error is also shown in Figure 5. The 
secondary spectrum curve has been plotted as focusing dis- 
tances against wave lengths stepped off at equal intervals. 
These, projected onto the horizontal, plainly show that the 
illumination is much more concentrated at the left hand end 
of the focusing distances making it quite feasible that the un- 
certainty of focus is confined between 0 and .001" rather 
than between 0 and .003". 

In addition to the visual measurements of color correction 
taken through the use of the color testing optical bench, each 
lens is tested photographically in the following manner: 

A piece of white board is ruled with equidistant black lines. 
This board is set in front of the lens to be tested, at an angle 
of 45° and is photographed on panchromatic film, illuminating 
it first with incandescent lights, second with white-flame 
carbon arcs and third, with mercury-arcs. The object is focused 
visually and after processing, the film is carefully examined to 
ascertain if the lines which present perfect definition coincide 
in each of the three tests. 

Catholic Film Congress 

T HE THIRD French Catholic Film Congress will be held in 
Paris from November 4, to 6, inclusive, under the presi- 
dency of Cardinal Verdier. Among the questions to be dis- 
cussed at this Congress are “the talking picture,” and “the 
child in the motion picture theatre.” 



November, 1 930 

Dupont Announces New Fire-Resistant 
Material for Motion Picture Screens 

O NE OF THE MOST important announcements of the past 
month comes from the offices of the DuPont organiza- 
tion. It is to the effect that this company has brought to per- 
fection a new material for making fire-resistant motion pic- 
ture screens. DuPont research chemists have been working for 
a long time to perfect this material, and the company can be 
justly proud of its accomplishment. One of the constant fears 
of theatre owners is fire. These men have long been demand- 
ing a fire-resistant screen material. 

This material has been subjected to the most rigorous tests 
in the company’s laboratories and by the National Fire Un- 
derwriters Two of these tests are pictured above. The Board 
of Underwriters gave the following in its report on the ma- 
terial : 

“The product in single sheets as used in theatres will not 
burn or propagate flame beyond the area exposed to the source 
of ignition. The product in compact form can be ignited with 
difficulty resulting in smoldering (flameless) combustion. 

“The product is relatively stable and is not liable to undergo 
decomposition or change resulting in an increase in hazard. 

“Tests of the product which has been subjected to aging 
tests did not show any change with respect to combustibility.” 
Aside from the all-important fire-resistant feature, this new, 
approved motion picture screen material also has the advantages 
of a matte finish, which gives a highly uniform degree of re- 
flection, and a construction which permits of easy and clean 
perforation for sound projection. 


Experience is the world’s best school “marm.” The CINEMATOGRAPHIC 
ANNUAL was written only by those who graduated from her school. 

Screen Definition 

(Continued from Page 17) 

duced by a well corrected lens has a sharpness or degree of 
detail reproduction (lens definition) which is far above the 
resolving power of the best commercially available motion 
picture negative film emulsion of about 40 lines to the 
millimeter. The higher resolving power of best positive emul- 
sions up to 75 lines per mm. does of course not influence 
original detail registration and becomes of value only when 
certain methods of optical printing are resorted to, beneficially 
influencing grain conditions in magnified projection. 

The image sharpness (definition) is therefore limited only 
by the resolving power of the negative emulsion, i. e. 40 lines 
per mm. 

The image sharpness of the lens system of the human eye 
has not been definitely established, and is in a normal structure 
probably also higher than the resolving power of the retina. 

This resolving power is about ten times as great as that 
of the film emulsion or produces an image of ten times better 
definition than a motion picture equipment. BUT — this is 
only the case at the fovea and for a lens angle of about one-half 

The above described involuntary scanning action, out-of- 
focus and illumination (contrast) conditions combined with 
the lag of nerve reaction, commonly called “persistence of 
vision” — invariably produces a composite image of every de- 
tail which is not only far below the central resolving power 
of retina, but also surprisingly below the actually registered 
film definition for any in-focus detail. 

The softness of each point of the retinal picture, however, is 
a composition of sharp and variously unsharp impressions. 

The picture of an object produced by a modern photo- 
graphic lens on the other hand is either sharp or unsharp and 
never has the characteristic of the superimposition of sharp 
and unsharp elements. 

When it is sharp or in absolute focus, it is of so called wire- 
sharpness, which is especially observable in close ups, may they 
be produced by short or long focus lenses. This wiresharpness 
is not pleasant to observe, because it is contrary to natural 
vision of reality. The greater the magnification produced by the 
lens, the more unpleasant the picture becomes, because it 
shows even to the scanning eye more details than it can observe 
in nature. 

It may at this point be mentioned that the cameraman 
ought to realize that in artistic reproduction of nature, the 
realistic representation of the pictorial or dramatic character- 
istics of the object is of fundamental importance, and that such 
characteristics are lost if too many details are clearly shown 
(wiresharpness) . There is a scale of characteristics from broad, 
dominant contrasting surfaces down to details, losing their 
artistic value the lower down they are on the scale. 

Diagram No. 2 

In photography these characteristics are governed by con- 
trast. It is the art in photography and it is the artistic skill of 
the cinematographer to produce the proper balance between 
contrast and definition, by control or selection of “lighting” 
and by lens control in order to approach as closely as possible 
such balance as the human eye produces. 

Diagram 2 shows within the limitations of a line drawing 
the effect of contrast upon definition. Column A shows 5 
characteristic wiresharp lines with the greatest possible con- 
trast of background. Columns B, C and D show the same 
(Continued on Page 28) 


T HE Moreno-Snyder Cine Corporation, 
Ltd., will, in the very near future, 
offer to the motion picture industry, 
to organizations, theatres and indi- 
viduals, commercial and amateur 
motion cameras and projectors of the 
CONTINUOUS TYPE — free of the shutter 
and intermittent movement — with all the 
advantages possessed by such cameras and 

Some of these outstanding advantages 

CONTINUOUS. The film passes through 
the camera at continuously uniform speed 
with no intermittent motion on either the 
film or any moving part of the camera. 

NOISELESS. This fundamental kinematic 
characteristic permits of a design which is 
noiseless in operation. 

EXPOSURE TIME. At the now standard 
intermittent film speed of 90 feet per 
minute the exposure time per picture 
frame is 1 48 seconds. With the M. S. 
Camera, and at a continuous film speed of 
90 feet per minute the exposure time per 
picture frame is about twice as long or 
1 24 seconds. 

Result: Standard exposure with M. S. 
camera is obtained by about 50% of now 
necessary standard illumination or of 
working lens aperture, thereby increasing 
photographic values of picture. 

SLOW MOTION. This camera is without 
any necessary change of adjustment a 
silent "slow motion" camera up to a film 
speed of about 300 frames per second or 
1 125 feet per minute. 

SOUND RECORDING. On account of the 
continuously uniform progress of the film 
synchronized sound recording can be ef- 
fected at the corresponding picture frames 
and not a predetermined distance there- 
from — another decided advantage over 
present standard practices for sound on 
film methods. 

exposure time for standard film speed 
offers great advantages for any system of 
color photography. 

DEPTH OF FOCUS. Another desirable 
characteristic of the M. S. Camera is the 
fact that a greater depth of focus is ob- 
tained for any definite setting of any 
standard lens. 

FOCUSING DEVICE. The change of camera 
from focusing (finder) position to expos- 
ure position does not move any heavy part 
of the camera; but is effected by the jar- 
less and practically resistless moving of a 
small lever for about VV'. The photo- 
graphic lens and the film are untouched, 
therefore, no movement of any kind is 

CONVENIENCE. The M. S. Camera is very 
much lighter than any standard camera, 
making it especially desirable for news 

ECONOMY. The extreme simplicity of 
this camera design lowers its cost. 

MAGAZINES. Delivery and windup film 
magazines are separate from each other, 
permitting about 50% reduction in weight 
and bulk of handling of camera film supply. 

PROJECTORS. Moreno-Snyder projectors 
possess equal advantages to our cameras. 
The flicker is absolutely eliminated; less 
danger of fire, since the amount of light 
is cut in half; systems of colors can be 
easily used; weight cut 2/3 and volume 
greatly reduced. 

( It is well to note that film made by this 
camera may be run on any intermittent 

Those interested in the Moreno-Snyder 
cameras and projectors, both professional 
and amateur models, will take note that 
conversations regarding these instruments 
and machines may be arranged for by mail, 
to take place after the first of November, 


6250 Santa Monica Blvd. Hollywood, California 

Please mention the American Cinematographer when writing advertisers. 




November, 1930 

WE WISH TO ANNOUNCE that in addition to the 
Dunning Process patents controlled and operated by us, 
we have acquired an exclusive license to all “Trans- 
parency” patents owned by PARAMOUNT PUBLIX 

A few current releases containing Dunning Shots 

“WHAT A WIDOW” — Gloria Swanson 
“HER MAN”— Pathe 
“MADAME DUBARRY” — United Artists 
“HOLIDAY” — Pathe 

“THE LOTTERY BRIDE” — United Artists 




“You Shoot Today — Screen Tomorrow” 

Telephone GLadstone 3959 
932 No. LaBrea Ave., Hollywood, Calif. 

Get On the Band Wagon 

T HE Boothe Company Aluminum contest in which $200 in 
cash prizes will be awarded for the three most original 
and useful devices for use in connection with the motion 
picture industry — and which must be made from aluminum or 
an aluminum alloy, is rapidly taking hold among the mechan- 
ical men of Hollywood. 

There is still a lot of time for the rest of you mechanical 
wizards to get started and catch up, and lead the field in at 
the home stretch. If you have had an idea floating around in 
the back of your head for some time regarding some particular 
device that could be made lighter and stronger if made of 
aluminum or an aluminum alloy, get busy and make a model 
and join the crowd who are working hard right now on models 
for this contest. 

There are many men in the studios who should be able to 
cash in on this contest. But — you amateurs away from the 
city of motion pictures have an equally good chance. Put that 
idea into being right now. $100 for first award; $60 for 
second, and $40 for third are the prizes. And there could be 
no easier or pleasanter way to pick up that amount of money 
than by enjoying yourself making a model that, in addition 
to winning a prize, might lead you into realms that you would 
never dream of. This is your opportunity to get your idea in 
the public eye. Some men try for years to get the attention 
of manufacturers after they have worked out some new device. 
Now you are invited to bring in your devices, and if they are 
good get paid for them. The contest has three more months 
to run. Let us hear from you, and if you have any questions 
to ask, send them to the Boothe Company, whose address is 
on the opposite page, or send them to the office of the Amer- 
ican Cinematographer. 


Efficiency is the Keynote of Success; Knowledge is the foundation for 
both; the CINEMATOGRAPHIC ANNUAL is your textbook of Knowledge. 



Using the Audio-Lite; 

Use Any Camera by Using our D. C. Synchronous Motors Operated by “B” Batteries 

For Further Information Write, Wire or Cable 


Phone HO-9431 

1511 North Cahuenga Boulevard 
Hollywood, California 

Cable Address: HOCAMEX 


Aluminum Contest 

$200 in Cash Prizes 

Here they are . . . those judges who will determine your skill in the BOOTHE COMPANY’S 
ALUMINUM CONTEST now being conducted through this magazine . . . 

Mr. I. J. Boothe, president of the Boothe Company; Hal Mohr, president American Society 
of Cinematographers; William Johnson, chief electrical engineer, R-K-0 Studios; John Arnold, 
Chief of M-C-M’s camera department; and Hal Hall, editor of the A. S. C. magazine . . .! 

IF YOU HAVEN’T ENTERED ... do so NOW and win one of those three big cash 
prizes . . . also if your model is accepted, which probably it will be by some industrial firm . . . 
win world-wide fame and a lot more money . . . 

There are hundreds of new uses today for aluminum in the motion picture industry. Intro- 
duce ONE of them and you’re MADE . . . 

Read the rules below and 



RAPHER and ends at midnight of January 15th, 1931. Winners’ names will be announced in the February number of this magazine. 
It is not necessary to be a subscriber to this periodical in order to compete. 

2. Cash awards of $100 — $60 — and $40 — representing first, second and third prizes will be given by BOOTHE COMPANY to the 
three contestants whose models, in the opinion of the judges are considered best adapted to practical and beneficial use in the pro- 
duction of motion pictures. Contestants, in case of a tie, will receive like awards. 

3. Anyone associated with motion picture work may compete — amateurs as well as professionals. This also means all motion picture 
studio or motion picture theatre employees, or any organization whose products are used in motion picture work, except those in 
any way associated with the BOOTHE COMPANY or any other organization handling aluminum or aluminum alloys. 

4. The judges, whose names are announced in this issue of the AMERICAN CINEMATOGRAPHER, are representatives of various 

branches of the motion picture industry. Their decision will be final. 

5. Two photographs, a front and side view, with a description of the completed product, must be sent to “The BOOTHE COMPANY 

ALUMINUM CONTEST Editor,” 1222 Cuaranty Building, Hollywood, on or before January 15th, 1931. Be sure that this is accom- 
panied by your name and address. No communications regarding this contest will be answered, unless accompanied by a self- 
addressed, stamped envelope. In no instance shall entries be sent until such request is made by the judges. Products must be 
made from aluminum or aluminum alloys. They may be wholly of aluminum or aluminum alloys, or may represent not less than 
seventy-five percent of these metals by weight. They may represent in their entirety a product useful to the motion picture 

industry, or may be a part, attachment or accessory to be used on some apparatus, machine or structure now employed. 



November, 1930 


When you need 
engraving you 
need the BEST! 

. . You GET it at the 




Zinc Etchings 

Copper and Zinc Half-Tones 
Color Work Designing 
Mats, etc. 

1606 Cahuenga Avenue Telephone HE 8149 


Art Reeves Phone 

Cliff Thomas HCIlywood 9431 


CAMERA Exchange 

Tlie Clearing House 
for Cameramen 

Mitchell and Bell & Howells FOR RENT 

Cameras and Projectors and 
Accessories bought and sold 

Commercial Photography 

Kodak Supplies Still Finishing 

16 mm., 35 mm. Developed and Printed 

1511 N. Cahuenga Blvd. 


Cable Address: Hocamex 

Screen Definition 

(Continued from Page 24) 

definition of the five lines, but a gradually decreasing contrast 
of background. It is clearly seen how the significant relative 
form, characteristic of these five wiresharp lines, is gradually 
destroyed by lack of contrast. 

The skilled cinematographer is well aware of these condi- 
tions and he has at present for their control, three technical 
elements at his disposition. 

1. Lighting or selection of illumination is of prime import- 
ance, because it is of the greatest influence upon 

2. Contrast, which, however, is also influenced by 

3. Lens definition. 

Illumination, he has pretty well under control, but defini- 
tion only partly. 

As far as lens action is concerned, the picture is either in 
focus or out of focus, or in other words it is either wire- 
sharp or “fuzzy.” Trying to eliminate wiresharpness by focus 
control simply shifts the attention from the main object, there- 
by destroying the dramatic qualities of the picture. Lens manu- 
facturers, realizing these conditions, endeavored to pro- 
duce so called soft lenses, which, however, are only of very 
limited satisfactory application, because the degree of softness 
or sharpness cannot be quickly changed without destroying 
the all important depth of focus or its proper placement in 
the field. 

There is another optical means, the optical engineer has 
furnished to the cameraman — the diffusion disc. 

There are very few optically correct diffusion discs. Gener- 
ally they produce not an even softening of the picture over 
the whole field as excelled in by the human eye and approx- 
imated by so-called soft lenses, but place in the picture, more 
or less overlapping spots or areas of distortions, by no means en- 
hancing the photographic quality of the picture. They are, 
nevertheless, better means of preventing wiresharpness of 
the main object, simply because so called diffusion does not 
influence depth of focus nor does it shift the center of attrac- 

It must furthermore be realized that the scanning action of 
the human eye maintains by its instant accommodation or 
focus change a balance of definition over the whole width and 
depth of the field, thereby producing a composite nerve image 
which we are used to, which we call natural vision of reality 
and which we expect to see on the screen. Plainly expressed, 
we want to see on the screen an even, soft definition of all 
objects in the field, wherever they are located in the width of 
the picture or in apparent distance. 

All modern motion picture equipment, however up-to-date, 
only produces screen pictures, the definition of which is un- 
even or unbalanced or unnatural. 

The illusion of natural balance of definition can only be 
approximated, because the cameraman’s equipment can neither 
produce a picture composed of sharp and unsharp definition 
of details, nor a naturally balanced definition for all visible 
object distances. 

In scanning a motion picture image there is no possibility of 
improving an out of focus picture element by accomodation, 
and the softening effect of such scanning action cannot pro- 
duce such total balance we are used to in contemplation of 

So far only lens definition, resolving power of film emulsion 
and illumination contrasts have been partly analyzed in their 
influence upon screen definition. 

A further analysis on hand of test photographs and the con- 
sideration of a number of other factors, influencing retinal 
and screen definition will follow in future articles. 

Ed. Note: This is the first of a series of articles by Dr. Dieterich. 
Watch for the next one in the December issue. 


For Authentic Information Read the Annual! 

Order Your Annual NOW! 

November, 1 930 



New Sound System Features Magnetic 
Record on Celluloid Film 

F OR the past five decades there has continually been a con- 
siderable amount of research work carried on in the field of 
sound recording, but since the advent of the talking picture, 
this activity has greatly increased and broadened. As far as 
motion picture phonography is concerned, two main courses 
of experiment have been pursued. The first of these is the 
obvious one of improving the existing methods and apparatus; 
the second is that of devising new systems which may be free 
from the many admitted failings of the accepted film and disc 

Two of the newer, experimental methods which have re- 
ceived the most attention have been those which recorded the 
sound by means of varying magnetic charges upon a steel wire 
or ribbon (as in the Still Process), and those which sought 
to engrave a sound record in the body of the celluloid film 
upon which the picture is photographed (as in the newly an- 
nounced Spoor Process.) 

From our French contemporary, LE CINEOPSE, we learn that 
a new process has been developed, which combines these two 
recording methods. LE CINEOPSE describes this process as 



Write for Circulars Describ- 
ing the Different Models 




FIG. 1. Schematic diagram of Nublat magnetic reproducer. 1. Magnetic 
metal shank which picks up the sound vibrations. 1-a. The end of 
the shank remaining at all times at a distance sufficient to permit the 
passage of the film without friction, and consequently without wear. 
2. Non-magnetic housing. 3. Second shank modifying the strength 
and direction of the current flowing through the coil (8). 4. Rubber 
blocks. 5. Electromagnet. 6, 7. Film, and phonographic groove. 8. 
Coil influenced by the magnetic current which induces an electromag- 
netic current modulated according to the phonographic record. 

9. Amplifier. 10. Loudspeaker. 

FIC. 2. Line drawing of Nublat sound-on-film recording, showing (6), 
the phonographic record formed by a deposit of magnetic material 

incrusted in the film. 

“A new method of recording and reproducing sound, said 
to be of the greatest resonance, has just been developed by a 
Frenchman, M. Nublat, and a company for its exploitation has 
been incorporated with a capitalization of several million 

“M. Nublat has completely changed the old methods of 
sound-on-film recording, to the great advantage of the 
exhibitor, who will no longer have to pay the heavy tribute 
exacted by the monopolies controlling the recording processes 
now in use. 

“The recorder is of such simplicity that its operation cannot 
be in any way interfered with, and its installation in the studio 
will be no more expensive than the cost of a first-class camera. 

“The reproducer is likewise of astonishing simplicity. In 

the new principle of this apparatus, the photo-electric cell is 
entirely done away with, and with it, naturally, all its numerous 
inconveniences. It utilizes in the more or less conventional 
manner, a moveable shank of magnetic metal, placed in a field 
such that, proportionally with the movement of the film, upon 
which is a phonographic groove of magnetic properties, the 
shank follows the recorded vibrations, as it invariably follows 
the path of least resistance to the magnetic circuit, and this 
without any friction upon the film-record. The superiority of 
such a system is evident. The phonographic groove of the 
film passing at normal speed between an electromagnet and 
a shank which transmits the sounds to the pick-up, thence to 
the amplifiers, and loud-speakers, explains a purity of tone 
superior to that of the best disc recordings, due to the elimi- 
nation of all friction, and therefore of all surface-noise. This 
also means the absolute elimination of the photo-electric cell, 
of its exciting-battery, lamps, etc., of the maintenance of these 
invariably delicate units, and their high first cost. 

“Undoubtedly, if such a system as this is successful, it will 
prove of considerable importance in not only the fields of 
theatrical production and exhibition, but particularly in the 
industrial and home-talkie fields as well.” 

Smallest Talkie House 

L C. PEARSON of the Northern Electric Company, which is 
the Canadian offspring distributing Western Electric Sound 
Systems in the Dominion, receives credit for bringing in a con- 
tract for an installation in what is believed to be the smallest 
theatre in the world. The house is the Crescent at Temiskam- 
ing, Quebec, and seats 240. It is patronized almost entirely by 
employees of a pulp and paper company whose plant is located 



for EVERYBODY d irectly or indirectly interested in the 


. . SOUND . . COLOR EFFECTS. A Wealth of Facts and Statistics Offering 
Simple Information and Technical Explanations :: :: :: :: :: :: 


: Y " WU' 


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Forcefully Written byMasterTechni- 
cians and Recognized Authorities . . 
Presented in Terms, Pictures and Language 
Everyone Understands :: :: :: 




Has a definite place in the Library of all Production and Distribu- 
tion Executives, Directors, Writers, Technicians, Sound and Lighting 
Engineers, Editors, Photographers, Laboratory Directors and 
Home Movie Makers. 

• ^ 3 ; Ft* $ 

per copy 

Bound in Blue and Cold. 675 Pages. 

Postage Prepaid Anywhere in the World. 

Compiled and Published by 


Hollywood, California 



1222 Guaranty Building, Hollywood, California. 

Gentlemen: Enclosed please find check (or money order) for Five Dollars ($5.00) for which 
please send me prepaid, one copy of your Cinematographic Annual. 

Name Address 


. State. 






The American Society of Cinematographers, 
Suite 1222 Guaranty Building, 

Hollywood, California. 


It gives me a great deal of pleasure to acknowledge 
the receipt of the Cinematographic Annual for 
1930, and to thank you for your courtesy in 
complimenting me with this copy. 

I have enjoyed looking through the book ai 

greatly interested in its contgatrST^” Allow 
to congratulate you on sucj^a ffne productioi 




November, 1930 




Will give you the results you need. We have 
the largest laboratory devoted to Composite 
Cinematography in Hollywood. 

Any background, either real scenes or miniature, 
may be used. Scenes may be corrected 
without retakes. 

Let us handle your intricate shots, your most 
dangerous, spectacular and hazardous scenes. 

Let us cooperate and plan with you, whether 
for a sequence or one scene. 

Call Frank Williams for an Appointment 

Composite Laboratories 

8111 Santa Monica Blvd. 

Tel. OXford 1611 


# A New Color Film System 0 

Extraordinary simplicity in take and projec- 

Natural color pictures in a new purely mechan- 
ical way. Patent rights to sell. 

Apply to: 


Poland, Warsaw, Leszno 1 13-3 

“Movie Effect 

produce Moonliqk} and NiqW Sffocls in haylime 
Foq Scenes- Diffused Focus and many other effects, 
just like they make ’em in Hollywood 

cAsk youp dealer or write to 


PHOTO-FILTER specialist 




Roy Davfdge 
Film Laboratories 

Negative Developing and Daily Print 

GRanite 3108 

Measurement of Density 

(Continued from Page 15) 


We shall not attempt to discuss the significance of these 
data in any detail, but wish only to point out one or two 
matters of interest. 

A factorial difference in density determination results in a 
factorial difference in gamma. If the reproducer measures a 
gamma value 1.3 times higher than that determined by sensi- 
tometric methods employing diffuse densitometry, an audible 
harmonic may be introduced. 

Some other factor, such as reciprocity failure which makes 
the sensitometrically determined gamma higher than the nega- 
tive sound track gamma, may partially or completely compen- 
sate for the effect of higher sound projection gamma. 

A second effect resulting from higher projection gamma is 
a change in the shape of the toe of the H & D characteristic. 
The toe of the characteristic curve which is effective in the 
semi-specular reproducer system will be shorter than that of 
the curve determined by the diffuse densitometer. 


'CALLIER, A.: “The Absorption and Scatter of Light by Photo- 
graphic Negatives, Measured by Means of the Martens Polarization 
Photometer,” Phot. J. 49 (n. s. 33 ) (1909), p. 200. 

2 BLOCH, O., and RENWICK, F. F.: “The Opacity of Diffusing Media,” 
Phot. J., 56 (n. s. 40 ) (1916), p. 49. 

TUTTLE, C. : “The Relation between Diffuse and Specular Density,” 
J. Optical Soc. Amer., 12 (June, 1926), p. 559. 

4 SILBERSTEIN, L., and TUTTLE, C.: “The Relation between the Spec- 
ular and Diffuse Photographic Densities,” J. Optical Soc. Amer., 14 
(May, 1 927 ) , p. 365. 

3 MacKENZIE, DONALD: “Sound Recording wth the Light Valve,” 
Trans. Soc. Mot. Piet. Eng., XII (1928), No. 35, p. 730. 

8 JONES, L. A., and SANDVIK, O.: “Photographic Characteristics of 
Sound Recording Film,” J. Soc. Mot. Piet. Eng., XIV (February, 1930), 

p. 180. 

7 WATKINS, S. S., and FETTER, C. H.: "Some Aspects of a Western 
Electric Sound Recording System," J. Soc. Mot. Piet. Eng., XIV (May, 
1930), p. 520. 

8 BULL, A. J., and CARTWRIGHT, H.: “The Measurement of Photo- 
graphic Density,” J. Sci. Instruments, 1 (1923-4), p. 74. 

“CAPSTAFF, j., and PURDY, R.: “A Compact Motion Picture Densi- 
lometer,” Trans. Soc. Mot. Piet. Eng., XI 0928), No. 31, p. 607. 

Moviolas Now Available for All Film Sixes 

F OR many years the standby of the film-editor has been the 
indispensable “Moviola” film-viewing machine. Since 
sound has entered the business of picture-making, several 
models of sound-equipped “Moviolas” have been evolved,* 
facilitating the cutting of pictures with sound on film (single 
or double system) or disc. 

Now that wide film is coming to the fore, the ingenious 
Iwan Serrurier, designer of the Moviolas, has perfected new 
models of the device, for all sizes of wide film. At the same 
time, he has also perfected several models of Moviola for 
16 mm. film, which should find great favor, not only with 
individual amateur users, but especially with Commercial 16 
mm. producers, and amateur cine-clubs. 

* See The American Cinematographer for January, 1930. 

Tanar Corporation Moves 

C ONTINUING their remarkable expansion, the Tanar 
Corporation is now moving into new quarters at 5357 
Santa Monica Boulevard, with their laboratories at 1110-1112 
North Serrano Ave., Hollywood. The entire ground flood of 
more than 6000 square feet of the building have been taken 
over. Next month we’ll have pictures of it. 


He who DOES a thing best is he who KNOWS HOW. 

Read the Cinematographic Annual! 

Making “Whoopee” with “Inkies” 


"The technical data of this article was furnished me by WM. O. MELLOR" . . F. L. 

U NTIL recently, the motion picture industry was unanimous 
in the opinion that natural color, musical pictures were 
passe. But with the release of Samuel Goldwyn’s latest 
production, “Whoopee,” starring Eddie Cantor, this opinion 
has undergone an abrupt bouleversement. For “Whoopee” is 
an all Technicolor, musical production — and a sensational suc- 
cess. Unquestionably, this film is the finest all-color produc- 
tion yet released, and as such is a personal triumph for its 
director, Thornton Freeland, and its cinematographer, Lee 

The remarkable lack of the blurriness heretofore noticeable 
in color runs is undoubtedly due in no small measure to the 
careful placement of the lighting equipment used. As is well 
known, the color process used in making this picture requires 
an increase of approximately 50 percent, in the intensity of 
the illumination used. Thus it may be understood that the 
problem of lighting was highly intricate, requiring a thorough 
knowledge of lighting, and a delicately balanced sense of 
values. Furthermore, it demanded a highly unusual variety 
and efficiency of lighting equipment. Mole-Richardson light- 
ing units — both Incandescent and Arc — were used exclusively 
in the production; several special units having been evolved 
expressly for the purpose of securing certain of the unusual 
lighting effects introduced in the picture. 

Some of the individual s.cenes were actually breath-taking 
in their beauty. The first ensemble dance number, for in- 
stance — the famous “Sombrero Number” — executed in the 
patio of a colorful ranch house, is noteworthy. Here the con- 
trast of brilliant orange hues, delicate blue-greens, and soft 
browns forms a remarkably entrancing scene. The white walls 

of the patio, the red tiles of the roof of the ranch-house, and 
the green of the surrounding shrubbery combine to create an 
appealing background. A tremendous amount of light was 
necessary to illumine this set so as to accurately reveal the 
coloring. A total load of approximately 21,600 amperes 
was used by a total of 325 lighting units, consisting of ninety- 
five overhead strip units, each using five 1,000-watt lamps; 
one hundred and ninety 24" sun spots, each using a 5,000 
kilowatt globe; and forty 36" sun spots with 10,000 kilowatt 

This scene is followed by a spectacular shot, straight down 
above the combined chorus, executing a unique circle dance. 

One receives the odd impression of viewing a great, circular 
blossom of unearthly origin that opens and closes its petals with 
swift regularity, suddenly to dissolve into a writhing, living 
mass of color — and as quickly, to form another beautiful 
pattern. These effects are cleverly achieved by the synchroniz- 
ing movements of the dancers and their manipulation of large, 
white sombreros. It is a gorgeous, circular kaleidoscope of 
contrasting colors. To illuminate this scene sufficient over- 
head was used plus fifteen 10 kilowatt lamps and fifteen 5 
kilowatt lamps, low on the hot side, with seven 5 kilowatts on 
the shadow side, diffused to give roundness. 

The film continues to unfold scenes worthy of the attention 
of every technical man in the industry. A particularly beauti- 
ful one is a balcony love-scene between Paul Gregory and 
Elinor Hunt. Color and lighting are at their best here. Every 
element is natural, the flowers in bloom on the trellis-work of 
the balcony, brilliant, red blossoms against dark, green leaves, 
(Continued on Page 45) 

A striking scene from “Whoopee” 




November, 1930 




JYIovieAIa king; 

vs mJLttt 


Stills From Cine Film 

T HE AMATEUR movie maker rarely has any time to even 
think of stills while he is making his motion pictures. Yet 
how frequently will he, while running his films, exclaim to 
himself, “How I wish I had a still of that!” 

Well, why not? Moving pictures are nothing more than a 
collection of individual still pictures, so why not select one of 
them and make a still enlargement from it? There are several 
devices available for this purpose — and even if there weren’t, 
ordinary projectors and enlargers would do the trick. 

The first requisite naturally is a suitable “frame” to en- 
large. This, in the first place, should be free from such phys- 
ical imperfections, as scratches, abrasions, and so on. Then, it 
should be properly exposed, and rather on the contrasty side: 
softness, or flatness makes a very poor enlargement. The 
image should be crisply focused, with as much depth as pos- 
sible, and, above all, the grain should be as small as possible. 
Finally, the subject should be caught in such a phase of move- 
ment as will make an interesting and attractive still picture. 

Having selected the “frame” to be enlarged, the next con- 
sideration is the method of making the enlargement, and the 
best size of enlargement to make. Inasmuch as the picture on 
a 16mm. film is so small, it is unwise to attempt to make a 
still negative larger than approximately 21/4x314 from it. It 
is true that in projection the same tiny frames are enlarged 
vastly more, with no apparent ill effects, but there are two 
factors which make this possible. In the first place, the pro- 
jected image is in motion, and our interest is concentrated 
not on the photographic perfection or imperfection of the pic- 
ture, but upon the action that is taking place on the screen. 
Furthermore, the projected picture is viewed from a distance 
of several feet — from which the details of minor technical 
imperfections are not readily visible — while still pictures of 
snapshot size are usually viewed at a distance of a few inches 
— from which every detail (good or bad) is instantly discern- 
ible. Therefore, though a 16mm. frame may be enlarged as 
much as five of six hundred times in cinematic projection, an 
enlargement of around seventy diameters is the maximum gen- 
erally allowable in making still pictures. This maximum is 
represented by the 2!4x3!4-inch dimension previously re- 
ferred to. 

The Enlarger 

The most logical method of making enlargements from 
16mm. film is to employ one’s regular projector, for the pro- 
jector is, in effect, nothing more than an enlarger equipped 
to project enlarged images from the cine “frames” in rapid 
succession. Therefore if it is equipped with some means for 
preventing the intense heat of the projection light from dam- 
aging the motionless film in the aperture, it may quite natur- 
ally be used as an enlarger. The manufacturers of some pro- 
jectors (notably the “Filmo” in this country and “Bol” in 
Europe) have recognized this, and devised special attach- 
ments for their machines which make enlarging simplicity 
itself. But those who do not own such outfits may easily adapt 
their present machines to such service. The most obvious re- 
quirement is some sort of an easel, or other support for the 
film or plate upon which the enlargement is made, which will 

be in the proper position relative to the lens, and absolutely 
parallel with the plane of the film in the projector. Any in- 
accuracy in this will tend to destroy the definition in some 
parts of the enlargement. Inasmuch as most projectors dis- 
perse some light in all directions, it is best to cover the pro- 
jector with a black cloth while enlarging. Similarly, it is advis- 
able to check the evenness of the illumination received by the 
easel before starting work. 

In using the “Filmo” projector and its enlarging apparatus, 
a point to be remembered is that the more powerful “45-50” 
condenser used for Kodacolor projection is not advisable for 
enlarging, as it concentrates so much light upon the film that 
over-exposure, and in consequence, flatness, results. The best 
results are obtained with the less powerful “F5-50” con- 
densers with which these cameras are usually equipped, or, 
if the other must be used, by reducing the intensity of the 
lamp appreciably. 

Naturally, most “still” enlargers may also be used for this 
work, although, since they do not have any provision for han- 
dling the long rolls of film, or for moving it frame by frame 
past the aperture, they are not nearly so convenient to use. 
There are, however, several enlargers made for making enlarge- 
ments from standard 35mm. film, as used in the “Leica,” 
“Q-R-S-deVry” and “Ansco” “Still-film” cameras, which 
may very conveniently be used for enlarging from 16mm. 
films as well. 

Making the Enlargement 

There are three methods that can be used in making still 
enlargements from cine film. The first is to make the orig- 
inal cinematographic picture on negative film, then making an 
enlargement directly from this negative, on Bromide paper, in 
the usual manner. 

The second is to use the ordinary reversal film, but to make 
a negative from the reversal positive, by contact printing, sub- 
sequently using this “dupe” negative for enlarging as above. 

The third method is, in all ways, the most practical. This 
is to use reversal film — or a positive print made from a nega- 
tive, in the ordinary way — and make an enlarged negative from 
this, making the enlarged prints from this, by contact. This 
has the great advantage of giving an enlarged negative, from 
which prints may be made at any time, by contact, without 
any further trouble over enlarging. Furthermore, from this 
enlarged negative, it is frequently possible to make still fur- 
ther enlarged prints with much better results, and less trouble, 
than if the additional enlargement were made from the orig- 
inal 16mm. “frame.” 

In making these enlarged negatives, the users of the various 
enlargers which are accessories to projectors usually are con- 
fined to the use of film packs. Of course, any brand of film- 
pack may be used, but it is as well to use whatever brand the 
manufacturer of that particular enlarger recommended, inas- 
much as the shutter action on the enlarger is usually timed to 
give a perfect exposure upon that particular emulsion. In any 
case, however, the film with the finest grain is preferable. 

The users of other enlarging devices, however, may have 
quite a considerable range of sensitive products to choose from. 

(Continued on Page 41 ) 

. . . in which 

John Arnold’s Filmo 

does a 35 mm. size job ! 

John Arnold, A. S. C., with his Filmo 70-D 

J OHN ARNOLD, mainspring of the 
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Camera Depart- 
ment, has a bump of curiosity as big as the 
"bungalows” he originates. An inveterate 
(and successful) experimenter, he uses his 
Filmo camera constantly in his more or 
less private searches for new angles on 
cinematography and cinemachinery. 

"I get a lot of fun out of my Filmo, but 
I do a lot of experimentation with it, too, 
at a whole lot less cost than if I used 
standard film,” says Mr. Arnold. 

Mr. Arnold’s interest in Filmo extends 
beyond his own researches into the use 
made of this camera by other film colon- 
ists. Among his interesting discoveries is 
the fact that newly arrived actors and 
actresses, all ardent Filmo fans, are using 
their cameras in learning how to time 
their movements when they face the big 
Bell & Howell’s in the studio. 

The "professional amateurs” who use 
Filmo — and they are many — turned 
naturally to this camera, guided by 
years of experience with the big Bell & 
Howell. Precision is its middle-name, 
and, while not so simple to operate 

Filmo 70-D — “Master of all personal movie cameras. ” Seven 
film speeds, three-lens turret, variable viewfinder. $245 and 
up in Sesamee-locked Mayfair case. Other Filmos from $92. 00 
up. Filmo Projectors, $198 and up. Many Bell & Howell 
dealers offer convenient budget payment plans 

as your cigarette lighter, it doesn’t miss it by far. Ask your 
dealer to show you the Filmo. Or write today for literature. 



Professional Results with Amateur Ease 

Bell & Howell Co., Dept. W, 1848 Larchmont Ave., Chicago * New York, Hollywood, London (B & H Co., Ltd.) * Established 1907 
Bei Aufragen und Bestellungen beziehen Sie sich bitte auf die American Cinematographer. 


Mr. MacKenna does some enlarging 

F PERSONAL photography could be reduced to a com- 
mon denominator, that common factor would be the 
family Kodak. For although there are thousands who 
own cine cameras, everyone owns some sort of a still 
camera. Yet the majority of these camera-owners can 
hardly be called photographers even by the greatest 
courtesy, for photography, to them, consists solely of 
pointing the camera in the general direction of some- 
thing or other, pressing a button, and — blaming the 
“finisher” for the inevitably bad results. They make no 
attempt to acquaint themselves with even the ele- 
mentary principles underlying the operation of a camera; 
and the artistic side of photography is, to them, a closed 
— even unknown — book. 

All of which is by way of introducing Kenneth Mac- 
Kenna — one of Hollywood’s “professional amateurs” 
who graduated from the “button pushing” class before 
he entered it. For Mr. MacKenna, coming from a family 
of artists, realized from the first that there was more 
to photography than mere snapshooting, and accordingly 
approached the subject with intelligently-directed en- 

“My real introduction to photography,” he says, “came 
when I was called to Hollywood to do talking pictures 
for Fox. I’d played in several silent pictures in the East 
before, but as I was then dividing my time between the 
stage and the screen, I hadn’t time to really study my 
surroundings in the studios. Out here, it was different. 
I settled down in Hollywood, and devoted myself en- 
tirely to not only making moving pictures, but to really 
learning how they are made. During my career on the 
stage, I’d managed to make myself intimately familiar 
with every detail of theatrical production, and naturally 
I wanted to familiarize myself with picture production 
in the same way. Of course, the most obvious difference 
I found was the introduction of the movie camera be- 
tween the player and his audience. So I told myself that 


In Which We Present an 


I’d have to begin by learning something about photog- 

“But you know how it is when you are on a pic- 
ture. You’ve not time for anything else. So I put off 
my start at learning photography more and more. Be- 
sides, I was so bewildered by the variety of amateur 
still and movie cameras available that I hardly knew 
which way to turn. 

“Then one Sunday I went out to the beach with 
Arthur Hornblow and his family, and I saw Arthur’s 
handly little ‘Leica’ still-film camera. It was so neat 
and compact that it interested me immediately; but, 
well, I couldn’t quite see the value of making such 
tiny pictures as that little camera made — and I 
couldn’t believe what Arthur told me about the en- 
largements he could make from them. But when we 
got back into town, Arthur convinced me by producing 
some pictures as big as 8x10 and even 11x14, which 
had been made from the tiny Leica films. 

“The next day I got myself a Leica! 

“I found that I’d made no mistake in getting it, 
for it enabled me to teach myself photography just 
as well as though I were using a big camera — and 
certainly at a far smaller cost. Considering the number 
of mistakes I made in those early days, that last item 

One of Mr. MacKenna’s stills 


♦ ♦ 


Amateur 7/ S t i 1 1 7 Man 


was important! The cameramen that I worked with on 
my various pictures gave me every help, too, for they 
were always willing to explain any point that I didn’t 

“With their help, I soon managed to pick up a fairish 
understanding of the elements of photography. They 
gladly taught me all about exposure, lighting, and so 
on; and since my father and brother are both painters, 
and had given me some idea of composition, all I had 
to do was to learn how to adapt my knowledge of com- 
position to the requirements of photography. 

“So it wasn’t long before I had become really in- 
terested in photography for its own sake. Then — like 
most other amateurs — I soon became dissatisfied at being 
able only to take the picture, and having to let someone 
else do the developing, printing, and enlarging that 
really completed the work. So the next time I went down 
town, I ordered a complete ‘Leica’ dark-room outfit. 

“It came, a few days later, just as I was dashing out 
— late — to a friend’s party. I had the various boxes, etc., 
taken up to my room, then hurried away for the evening. 

When I came home, much later, those boxes intrigued 
me. I couldn’t rest until I’d opened them. So, although 
it was well after midnight, I dug out a hatchet, and set about 
installing my little laboratory. But by the time that I had gotten 
everything ready to use, I was so excited over it all that I 
naturally had to use it! So then and there, quite unmindful of 
the fact that it was more than a little beyond the wee sma’ 
hours I made my first enlargement. The less that is said about 

Mr. McKenna forgets acting 

the first one, the better, for it was by no means satisfactory 
enough to let me go to bed and sleep like a sensible man. Nor 
was the next, or the next. But making them was so fascinating 
that I didn’t want to sleep. Instead, I sat up and experimented 
all night, until by morning I had a collection of really nice 
(Continued on Page 42) 

Another of Mr. McKenna’s stills 




November, 1 930 

Upper left, Dawn on the Mediterranean. 

Left center, Sunrise in Italy. Taken at four o’clock in the morning. 
Lower left, Sunset in Alaska. 

Upper right, Alaskan scene on a cloudy day. 
Right center, Venice on a cloudy day. 

Lower right. Another Alaskan scene. 

Cine-Kodak Goes on Alaskan Location 

by JOHN W. BOYLE, A. S. C. 

W HEN a man’s business is that of making motion pic- 
tures for the amusement of the rest of the world, he 
seldom has much time to think more than momen- 
tarily of anything else, even himself. Therefore, although I 
have used a 16mm. Cine-Kodak for many years, I’ve con- 
fined my amateur activities to the routine subjects found at 
home, and among my friends. And though I’ve often seen 
things around the studio and on location while I’ve been work- 
ing, which I’ve longed to secure for my home library, I’ve 
never carried my amateur cinematic interests into my profes- 
sional work. 

However, this summer, something happened which changed 
my point of view. I had decided that I’d spent quite enough 
time working on hot, sound-proof stages, so I sought out pro- 
ductions that were to be made in the well-known ‘great 
open spaces.’ I joined the R-K-0 Camera Staff, and im- 
mediately had the good fortune to be associated with Karl 
Struss, A. S. C., in charge of the photography of their big 
railroad ‘special,’ “Danger Lights,’’ which was made both in 
standard 35mm. film and wide film, using the Spoor- Berggren 
63mm. process. Our locations were along the main line of 
the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad, and 
during the six weeks that we were out we lived in a de Luxe 
special train, among some of the most beautiful scenery in 
America. The combination of this scenery and the fascinating 
novelty of our intimate contact with the railroad activities 
soon had me wishing I’d brought my Cine-Kodak along. But 
it remained for one of our sound engineers to have done it. 
When we returned, he had made a very complete record of 
our trip, in all its aspects, from scenes of the boys bathing 
in the icy waters of the Missouri river to our ‘Special’ pulling 
into Chicago. After seeing his film, I decided that wherever 
my next location might be, I’d take my Cine-Kodak along 
and make my own record of the trip. 

Two weeks later, I was assigned to the company going to 
Alaska, to make “The Silver Horde.” That clinched it! Alaska 
is one of the few places on this old globe that I hadn’t seen 
and photographed, so my Cine-Kodak was surely going along! 
I laid in an ample stock 
of Panchromatic film, 
j got some new gelatine 
filters, and was off. I 
make a practice of 
keeping a K-2 gelatine 
filter mounted just in 
front of the front com- 
bination of my lens all 
of the time. Of course, 
occasionally there are 
times when a K-3 or a 
C filter is preferable; 
but the matter of 
changing filters is very 
simple. Very early in 
the morning, and very 
late in the evening, 
when the light is weak, 
and quite yellow, and 
your 1.9 lens must be 
used wide open, no 
filter is necessary. But 
/ as a general rule, I try 
to photograph all of my 

shots through filters. On our departure from Seattle, the 
weather was fairly good, and as the Pacific Fleet was in port, 
we had a more than usually interesting background. The In- 
side Passage was very interesting, and worthy of considerable 
footage. It reminded me strongly of the Inland Sea of Japan, 
except that the islands were more mountainous, and the 
channel generally narrower. 

As our object was to reach Alaska at the height of the 
Salmon season, we found much interesting activity to photo- 
graph, both professionally and personally. The methods used 
in trapping the fish, both in the large, stationary traps, and 
in the floating ones, are worth a complete picture in them- 
selves, and offer plenty of action — and some interesting sound, 
too. The traps are huge affairs, and have to be emptied — 
“brailed,” the fishermen call it — at certain times during the 
day. Since there is an eighteen foot tide in this part of the 
world, the fishing operations require a great deal of skill and 
efficiency. Then there is the possibility of getting some really 
spectacular scenes of the salmon going up the streams to 
spawn. Of course, I had read how these fish rush up the 
rivers in literal droves, leaping over roaring waterfalls, and 
so on, but until I actually saw them doing it, I had never 
fully realized what a remarkable spectacular performance it 
is. It makes an unusually interesting film, particularly if you 
have some moderately long-focus lenses, so that you can get 
fairly big images of the fish, yet remain yourself out of reach 
of the spray from the falls. The operations of the canneries, 
themselves, are equally interesting. All of the canneries are 
large and sanitary, and in many instances so well illuminated 
by natural light that it is possible to take interiors at a stop 
no greater than F:2.3, with the camera running at normaf 

The people of Alaska are very hospitable, and — which is 
even more important to a photographer — they are “picture 
minded,” and will go well out of their way to help a fellow- 
secure a picture. The towns are full of interesting sights, from 
Totem Poles to Indian villages — to say nothing of the many 
picturesque native characters. At one of the villages where we 

worked, the houses were 
all built over the water 
on piles, with narrow, 
wooden walks serving 
as streets. And these- 
were by no means only 
the poorer parts of the 
town, but even parts of 
the business district. It 
is certainly a queer sen- 
sation to be walking 
along in front of really 
respectably big busi- 
ness buildings, and’ 
realize that they are- 
all supported on piling, 
and stand, perhaps, in- 
five or ten feet of 
water at high tide! In 
another town where we 
worked, the traffic 
problem was almost 
like that of an Ameri- 
( Continued on 
Page 46) 



New Portable Recorder for Double 


market has not been favorable to full length films of this na- 
ture. Consequently, some extraordinarily fine films have been 
inaccessible to the American public generally and especially to 
the home, church, and school fields where such material is most 

An effective remedy is now offered by the Bell & Howell 
Company which has prepared one and two reel versions, on 
16 mm. film, of some of Amkino’s best productions. 

Among these new Bell & Howell releases is a two reel pic- 
ture of life among the primitive family tribes of a tiny, forest 
people, the Ussurians. Their mode of getting a living by 
skillful hunting and fishing, their social division of labor 
between the sexes, and finally the influence of Western 
civilization in bringing commendable changes to these back- 
ward, simple people are arrestingly portrayed. One of the most 
interesting moments shows the excitement of a native when 
he sees himself in the movies for the first time. This film, 
which is entitled “Taming the Taiga,’’ ranks with the best 

Front view recording head 

an entirely new, portable sound recording system for which 
they are the sole agent. The outstanding feature of the new 
system is that it uses the double-film system as used in the 
studio recorders. The recorder is an entirely separate unit from 
the camera, both being driven by synchronous Direct Current 
motors, operating from “B” batteries. This is believed to be 
the first installation to successfully use Direct Current, battery- 
powered motors in absolute synchronization. 

The electrical equipment of this new recording system is 
unusually complete, yet compact. The microphone is of the 
condensor type, and the amplifier is a four-stage, direct-coupled 
design, with a gain in excess of 100 decibels. The whole 
amplifying unit, including the microphone, headphones, spare 
recording lamps, and all necessary equipment except the bat- 
teries, is assembled in a carrying case measuring 17" high, 1 1" 
wide, and 10" deep. The batteries are in another case, while 
the recording head fits into a third. 

The recording head is of cast aluminum, and uses standard 
Mitchell magazines. It is fitted with a footage- meter, tacho- 
meter, speed controller, and a switching arrangement which 
permits the use of either camera or recorder alone, or of the 
two together, in synchronization. This sound system, of which 
the Hollywood Camera Exchange is sole agent, has been worked 
out by Hollywood engineers with years of experience, accord- 
ing to Art Reeves and Cliff Thomas, heads of that organization. 


Russian Travel and Educational Films Made 
Available in 16 MM. 

T HE EXCEPTIONAL quality of Russian travel and educational 
films thus far introduced into this country has aroused 
widespread favorable attention from American film critics, 
educators, and the motion picture world generally. 

Thus far the presentation of Russian pictures, except for a 
few features like “Potemkin’’ and “The Fall of St. Peters- 
burg,” which enjoyed runs at Roxy’s Theatre in New York 
City, has been limited to some of the smaller movie houses in 
the larger cities, due to the fact that the general theatrical 


Amplifier and microphone of new portable equipment 

socio-naturalist films and is of compelling interest for home, 
school and church showing. 

Another of these releases is the one reeler “Hunting and 
Fishing in Siberia,” which is of special interest to the lovers of 
unusual sport and travel films and which includes the killing 
of a giant bear by a native single-handed and armed only 
with a spear. 

A third release is a one reeler on Afghanistan, reported to 
be the only motion picture ever made with the consent of 
the Afghan authorities. The extremely primitive methods of 
agriculture are plainly and interestingly shown, likewise the 
towns and their crowded bazaars and busy handicraftsmen; 
also camel, elephant, and buffalo transport; ruins of ancient 
temples and, then, the surprising forced-draft of modernity 
introduced by the ill-fated King Amanullah. Travel interest, 
humor and educational value are skillfully blended. 

Have you ordered your Annual? 

November, 1930 



Amateur Movie Making 

(Continued from Page 34) 

While filmpacks are hardly suitable for use with ordinary en- 
largers, or with projectors individually adapted to such service, 
there is an almost unlimited range of cut-films and plates 
available. Almost any good, slow, Orthochromatic emulsion 
will do; speed and color-correction being, naturally, of no 
importance. Speed is, in fact, somewhat of a disadvantage, 
inasmuch as the grain increases out of all proportion to in- 
creases in speed. Users of plates will find that the special 
“Lantern-Slide” plates will be excellent for this sort of thing, 
while the various “Process” emulsions will also give good re- 
sults, especially where particularly snappy, contrasty results 
are wanted. 

In printing from these enlarged negatives, the whole vast 
range of printing and enlarging papers is available, making the 
choice of a printing surface a matter for individual decision. 
However, it may well be remembered that the rougher surfaced 
papers are decidedly the best for this use. Perhaps the best 
results come through the use of the so-called “silk-finish” or 
“linen-finish” papers, on a buff stock. 

Sometimes it happens that one wants to enlarge scenes from 
his older films, which are often scratched from much use. In 
this case, the best thing to do is to clip out the selected frame, 
and make the enlargement with an ordinary, vertical “still” 
enlarger, using a glycerine sandwich. By this means the various 
abrasions on the film base can be almost completely concealed. 
This is done by immersing the film in a liquid of the same 
refractive index as that of the film base and gelatine-emulsion; 
in this case, either glycerine or turpentine. 

The so-called “liquid sandwich” is made this way. Pour a 
little pool of the liquid — in this instance, let us say glycerine 
— upon the bottom glass of the negative-carrier of your 
enlarger. Then lower your strip of film — not more than 

four or five frames long — into this pool, emulsion 

down, until all of it is in absolute contact with the 
glass and the liquid. Then pour another pool of glycerine out 
on top of the film, and slowly lower the cover-glass upon it. 
This completes the “ sandwich,” which should then be placed 
in the carrier of the enlarger and used. Obviously, it is suited 
only to use in a vertical enlarger. Inasmuch as the film is so 
small, and can hardly fill the full area of the carrier, it is a 
good idea to place a mask over it, to cut unwanted light and 
prevent fogging of the plate or paper upon which the enlage- 
ment is being made. 

Filmo Topics 

T HE November issue of Bell & Howell’s wonderfully interest- 
ing monthly publication, Filmo Topics, should be very 
worthwhile to the users of 16 mm. cameras. This publication 
will be mailed free to anybody who simply writes to the Bell 
& Howell company at 1848 Larchmont Avenue, Chicago. It 
is a splendid little publication, packed with useful and inter- 
ing ideas and information. The contents of the November 
issue below: 


The annual seal hunt off the coast of Labrador. 

family gathering films of lasting value. 


used by Filmo owners. 

TITLING YOUR FILMS. 2. Preparing title cards for filming 
— various methods illustrated and explained. 

expects of Santa Claus. 

the “Facts about Filmo” series, explaining the operation 
of the intermittent mechanism of the Filmo Projector. 

$ 2.00 



152 West 42nd Street New York City, New York 


are optically accurate 
and photographically 
effective » » » » » 

Kino-Hypar f:2.7 and f:3, 35 to 100 mm. 
focal lengths. Simple in design . . . consists 
of only three lenses . . . affords microscopic 
definition in the image. Free from flare or 
coma. Fine covering power. 

Telestar f:4.5, 4 Vs to 1 3 V 2 ." focal lengths — 
an ideal telephoto series for long distance 
shots and closeups . . . excels because of 
practical absence of distortion. 

Cinegor f:2 and f:2.5, a Superspeed series; 
ideal for work under unfavorable light 

A new catalog listing the complete line ef 
Goerz Lenses and Accessories will be mailed 
on request. 


317 EAST 34™ ST. 


Forty- two 


November, 1930 


H ERE we see Colonel Wm. C. Stuber, President of the Eastman Kodak Company, in the garden of his 
home at Rochester, N. Y., making movies of his grandchildren, Marjorie and William James Stuber, 
with his Cine-Kodak. 

Professional Amateurs 

(Continued from Page 37) 

prints to show. “Since then, I’ve been learning more and more 
about my new hobby, and enjoying it more with each mistake 
and each success. Arthur Hornblow has shared my dark-room 
with me, and together we’ve spent hours working with our 
enlarger, trying to get new effects and new compositions from 
■our old negatives, trying new papers, new formulas, and every- 
thing else that a couple of enthusiastic amateurs can think of. 

“I’ve become quite rabid on the subject of making big prints 
from small negatives. And why not, after all? If your camera 
will give you a really first-class negative, and you take suffi- 
cient pains in enlarging, you can not only get as good an en- 
larged picture as though you had used a big camera in the 
first place, but often a decidedly better one, for in enlarging 
you have almost unlimited possibilities of control. Besides, 
the enlargement will give the picture a certain artistic soft- 
ness that cannot be imitated in a contact print. 

“Besides, there is so much in favor of using a small camera 
in the first place. For one thing, you can, with a ‘Leica,’ 
■use regular motion picture film, which gives you the identical 
Panchromatic emulsions that the professional cinematographer 
uses, and which are not available in any other form. Then, too, 
you can use a small camera in so many places where you abso- 
lutely cannot use a big one. This is something that should com- 
mend the small camera not only to amateurs, but to profession- 
als, as well. Since I’ve had my little camera, I’ve been religiously 
preaching that idea to still men on my pictures; but al- 
though many of them have individually and personally agreed 
with me, I can’t say that my arguments have made any great 
impression upon the official conduct of the studio still de- 
partments! But I did have one wonderful opportunity for 
proving my contentions. That was on Fox’s submarine pic- 
ture, ‘Men without Women.’ This film, you know, was made 
with the co-operation of the U. S. Navy, who placed several 
•destroyers and submarines at our disposal. One sequence was 
actually photographed inside a submarine, under water. Now, 
•even in the biggest of subs, space is distinctly at a premium — 

and this wasn’t by any means one of the big ones. So there 
was no room for the big 8x10 cameras of the still men; but 
it was easy enough to slip the little ‘Leica’ into my pocket 
and snap as many pictures as I wanted. I took the roll home 
with me when we quit the location, developed it, and made 
some really fine enlargements from it. Then I was able to ex- 
hibit them to the still crew, as definite proof of the value of a 
tiny camera like that in emergencies on a movie-set. The boys 
were so enthusiastic that they finally persuaded me to let them 
have the negatives of those pictures, and I’ve since understood 
that prints from them went out as part of the regular set of 
production stills on the picture. 

“While I’ve not yet taken up 16mm. movie-making (though 
I’m getting nearer to it every day), I believe that such small 
still-film cameras as the ‘Leica’ are the answer to the 
amateur cinematographer’s need for stills to go with his movies. 
They are so small, so simple to operate, and will produce such 
excellent enlargements that I don’t see how they can be 
left out of an amateur movie-maker’s outfit. 

“Besides, these tiny still-film cameras can be carried about 
with one almost everywhere, without being noticeable or 
burdensome. And if you carry a tiny camera such as this about 
with you regularly, you will soon find yourself seeing the 
world with an entirely different eye. You will be constantly 
seeing pictures in the ordinary scenes and happenings of daily 
life. Thus you will find yourself changing from just another 
snapshooter into, well, hardly an artist, but certainly into some- 
one who has the desire to make his prints really count as 
pictures, rather than mere records. You’ll begin to think 
lighting, chiaroscuro, and composition in connection with even 
the most ordinary snapshots, just as the studio cinematographers 
have to; and you’ll be thinking, not only of the individual 
subjects as potential pictures, but of the viewpoints and con- 
ditions which will make them the best pictures. And once 
your thought gets started in that direction, it rests solely with 
you to make your pictures really worthy pictorially. 

“You can say much the same about enlarging, too, for 
with the possibilities you have of control, through using only 
part of the negative, dodging, and double-printing, you have 



November, 1 930 

New Bell & Howell Bright Screen 

F ROM the Bell & Howell engineering laboratories has come a 
remarkable new screen, which is now ready for delivery. Its 
unprecedented reflective power and its fine texture make it 
ideal for projecting Kodacolor pictures, and it also gives black 
and white films a new rich beauty. It is surprisingly light in 
weight, making for easy handling and transporting. 

This dual purpose screen has a double frame. The outer 
frame is attractively finished in brown walnut. On the narrow, 
black finished inner frame, the fine textured, projection sur- 
face is mounted. For use, the inner frame is easily unsnapped, 
lifted out, reversed, and replaced. Then, when the show is 
over, the inner frame is removed and replaced with its projec- 
tion surface facing in for protection from dust, dirt and abra- 
sion when in storage. 

Two swinging feet on the base support the screen upon a 
table, and may be turned to lie against the frame for compact 

The projection surface is a composition of several metallic 
elements in extremely finely powdered form, held in suspen- 
sion in a binding solution and applied to a 14-gauge sheet 
aluminum base by a special Bell & Howell developed process. 
When necessary, this surface may be dusted lightly with clean, 
soft cheese-cloth. Should the surface, after long use, become 
unduly scratched or marred, the aluminum sheet may be re- 
moved from its frame and refinished at the Bell & Howell 
factory at nominal cost. 

>rgwH?l B ^ F2a 






1222 Guaranty Bldg., 

Hollywood, California. 

Gentlemen : Please find enclosed three dollars 

(Foreign rates additional), for one year’s subscription 

a chance of making real pictures out of even rather ordinary 
negatives. And, too, the business of making the enlarged 
prints is such good sport. You can work over your enlargement 
just as a painter works over his picture, until you get exactly 
the effect that you want; you can put your own personality 
into your pictures, almost as truly as though you drew or 
painted them. People talk about the lack of control that the 
photographer has, in comparison to the painter, and of his 
lack of color: yet these same people will often revel in the 
beauty of a monochrome etching, or of a page of rare printing. 
To me, a fine photograph is equally a thing of beauty. For 
years, I have collected rare books, simply for the esthetic 
pleasure the beauty of their craftsmanship and printing con- 
veys; now, since I have begun to learn something about 
photography, I have found that a perfectly made photographic 
print has the same exquisite, singing beauty that distinguishes 
a perfectly printed page, or a fine etching. Pictorial beauty is 
the same, no matter what medium is used to express it. So 
if there is anything that I, as an amateur, can say, it is that 
I wish that more of my fellow-amateurs could realize the 
possibilities latent in their family still-cameras, and in their 
most ordinary surroundings. If they’d only look for pictures in 
their every day life, they’d find themselves surrounded by 
pictorial beauty all the time.” 

to the American Cinematographer, to begin with the 

issue of , 1 9 


Street No 

Town State 

Clubbing Rates 

U. S. 




Cinematographer — 
In Club with: 




Camera Craft 

— ... 3.90 







The Camera 

~~ 3.90 



Please make all remittances payable to 


Making Multicolor Two Miles Up 

Elmer G. Dyer, A. S. C., Makes Unusual Aerial Color Films 

by WM. STULL, A. S. C. 

E LMER G. DYER, A. S. C., one of Hollywood’s most outstand- 
ing aerial cinematographers, has been making tests for 
Multicolor in the air, and to top off his aerial tests with this 
color film he has just shot scenes at an elevation of ten 
thousand feet, the first time natural color has been shot at such 
an elevation, as far as we of this publication can determine. 

Some of the observations of Mr. Dyer, who is under contract 
to Caddo, whose ally is Multicolor, are extremely interesting 
and follow: 

“I’m glad that I’ve been able to do it,” says Dyer, “not 
only because it is something I’ve been wanting to do ever 
since I started flying, but because the results have justified 
the confidence that Howard Hughes has shown in me in let- 
ting me have a free hand with these experiments. 

“Black and white photography — no matter how perfect — 
can never give a true impression of the beauty of the scenes 
that are constantly revealing themselves to the eye of the 
flyer. You can capture the form of the various cloud-forma- 
tions, of course, but you can’t get the full beauty of it over 
without color. Black-and-white photography can suggest the 
beauty of some scenes you see above the clouds during the 
daytime, but it’s a total loss when it comes to the beautiful, 
pastel tints of a sunset or sunrise above the clouds. Besides, 
in pictures of aerial ‘dogfights’ — like those in ‘Hell’s Angels’ 
or ‘The Dawn Patrol’ — think of the pictorial possibilities of 
color, with a dozen or so brilliantly colored ships manoeuver- 
ing against the sky and great masses of snowy clouds. Then, 
too, the coloring will make it much easier for the audience to 
distinguish the individual ‘ships’ flown by the various char- 

“In our tests, we put the camera in one plane, and took 
off, while another ship — a Waco with a brilliant blue body, 
red-striped, and orange wings — went up with us to stunt a 
bit for my camera. The plan was that as soon as we got 

above the clouds the Waco would come alongside us, fly be- 
side us for a few moments, half-roll onto its back, hang there 
a moment, and then drive straight down to the clouds, so that 
I could follow it with my camera, and get some shots of the 
earth through the clouds. As usual, the manoeuvre was to be 
repeated several times, so that we could get plenty of inter- 
esting footage. After that, there were to be a few loops, lm~ 
melmanns, Wing-overs, and a spin or two, all of which would 
give us some plenty interesting action, and give us a good idea 
of the use of color for such work. 

“Well, things went according to schedule for a while. We 
filmed our own take-off, and then got a good shot of the 
other ship getting off, too. Then we climbed, and got into 
position. The first half-roll and dive went off beautifully; 
so did the second; but then the ship’s engine went dead on 
him, and he had to make a forced landing in a beet field sev- 
eral miles from the airport. We circled around, as we expected 
that he’d be joining us in a few minutes, but he soon signalled 
that we’d have to go on without him. I was sorry to lose 
my subject — but otherwise I was plenty glad to get away; 
I was dressed for high-altitude flying, and it was awfully hot 
down there, a scant few hundred feet above the ground! 

“But, as we started to climb, I got more and more thankful 
for my heavy, fleece-lined flying-suit, my heavy mittens, and 
the big leather face-mask I was wearing. By the time we got 
up above the clouds the altimeter registered 10,000 feet, and 
the bottom had dropped out of the thermometer. I was cold, 
even through my warm garments; and the oil in my camera 
got so cold and thick that the motor would no longer pull it; 
I had to crank it myself. And if you think that an ordinary, 
silenced camera turns hard down on the ground — just try it 
two miles up in the air, with the oil nearly frozen stiff! If 

(Continued on Page 50) 

Cloud formation 10,000 feet in the air 


November, 1 930 



Making “Whoopee” With “Inkies” 

(Continued from Page 33) 

bare, skeleton cactus plants etched against a marvelous sky 
of blue, the pure white of the girl’s bridal dress — all blending 
perfectly into one extraordinary composition. Nothing is over- 
done. The general lighting was cut down in this scene due 
to the closeness of the shot. Lights consisted of 24" sun 
spots, ten duces and six rifles. 

Undoubtedly one of the most beautiful shots ever made 
with color photography is the Mission Arch scene. The arch, 
silhouetted against a wondrous blue-green sky, forms a picture 
of rare, haunting charm. Lights from the ranch house filter 
through nearby trees to lay soft traceries of white upon the 
sombre brown of the arch. Figures clad in pink pour through 
the entrance, their arms brimming with gorgeous desert blos- 
soms. The lighting effects ring up a grand score here. Full 
lighting on this set consisted of a total load of 12,860 amps, 
including sixty-eight 5 unit strips, as general overhead lights, 
one hundred and two 24" 5 kilowatt sun spots and twenty- 
five 36" sun spots. In order to emphasize the beautiful tones 
of green in the scene two 36" Mole-Richardson sun arcs, three 
24" Mole-Richardson sun arcs and eight 80 amp rotary spots 
were used. Arcs were employed here due to the fact that 
the arc ray contains a greenish hue which is highly effective 
on green substances, therefore preferable, so long as it does 
not spill over and hit white, blue or red. 

Many scenes taken on the Indian reservation set are par- 
ticularly attractive. The instance where Cantor smokes the 
peace pipe with the chief contains a somber beauty — a compo- 
sition of browns, ochres, oranges and reds. The total load 
here was 7,535 amps, consisting of thirty-eight 5 unit strips, 
thirty 18" sun spots, one hundred and one 24" spn spots and 
five 36" sun spots. 

Introducing the grand spectacle, an Indian chieftain in full 
regalia stands silhouetted against an evening sky, traced with 
wisps of clouds tinted a delicate rose by the setting sun. This 
is perhaps the simplest, yet by all odds the most impressive 
scene in the entire production. 

Comes the spectacle — a rhythm of moving color pouring 
down a great ramp, — white, cream, black, pale, salmon, orange, 
deep red, brown, green, blue — immense feathery, colored 
plumes, head-dresses for beautiful women astride stalwart 
horses. A magnificent scene illuminated with a total load of 
18,170 amps consisting of one hundred and twenty-two 5 
unit strips, one hundred and fifty 24" 5 K W sun spots, 
twenty-eight 36" 10 K W sun spots. On the backing thirty 
36" 10 K W sun spots were used. 

Throughout the picture sky vistas were greatly featured in 
backgrounds. This called for a particular type of light which 
was developed by Mole-Richardson, Inc., exclusively for this 
production. Forty of these new lights, aptly called “sky lights’’ 
were manufactured. All sky backings in “Whoopee” were 
lighted by these lamps, a 10,000 watt globe being used in 
each lamp. A special feature of the “sky light” is that it 
eliminates all light circles and dark rings. The beautiful cloud 
effects in the sky scenes were produced by bringing light up 
through the use of rheostats on 1 0 KW Sun spots. 

“Whoopee” is a wonderful achievement in color photog- 
raphy and lighting effects. It sets a new high mark for 
excellence in color productions. 

Emery Huse, A. S. C. 

E MERY HUSE, another of the new Associate members of the 
American Society of Cinematographers, was born in New- 
buryport, Massachusetts, February 24, 1897. He was educated 
in Washington, D. C. in the public grammar schools, Central 
High School and George Washington University. When the 
war broke out Mr. Huse entered the Air Service. In January, 
1919 he entered the Physics Department of the Eastman 
Kodak Company Research Laboratory where he remained until 
August of 1 926. 

At that time he was tranferred to the Motion Picture Film 
Division of the Eastman Kodak Company in Rochester where 
he remained for two years. Then he was sent to Hollywood 
in March, 1928 for technical service work. At present he is 
Manager of the West Coast Division, Motion Picture Film De- 
partment of the Eastman Kodak Company, and is the Technical 
Editor of the American Cinematographer, as well as one of 
the members of the Board of Editors of the Cinematographic 


I N THE populous Villette district of Paris, Leon Brezillon, presi- 
dent of the French exhibitors association, is erecting a large 
hall, which will be fully equipped for presenting sound-films 
on a wide screen. For the purposes of the enterprise, which 
is considerable, the Societe Secretan Palace has been founded, 
with an initial capital of four million francs. M. Brezillon will 
be president and managing director of the company. 

Nagel Cameras With Hugo Meyer Lenses 

W E NOTE with interest that the Nagel Cameras are 
equipped with Hugo Meyer lenses which, to our way of 
thinking, represents as desirable a combination as it is possible 
to obtain. The Nagel cameras are characterized by their rugged 
yet light construction, their beauty of appearance and their 
ease of operation. And the fact that they are matched by a 
series of Hugo Meyer lenses makes the combination one that 
is highly desirable and one that should be very efficient. 



November, 1930 

Cine-Kodak Coes on Alaskan Location 

(Continued from Page 39) 

Concentrator microphone of R-K-0 used on “Danger Lights”. 

can metropolis, for while 
there were rather more than 
five hundred automobiles in 
the place, the city boasted 
exactly eight and three- 
quarter miles of road for 
them to use! 

Alaska is in many ways 
a land of extreme contrasts, 
for while you will often see 
the most primitive of fron- 
tier conditions, they will in- 
variably be hand-in-hand 
with the most modern as- 
pects of civilization. Fre- 
quently, for instance, the 
fisher-folk will be found 
living in the simplest of 
frame homes, sometimes 
hardly more than shacks — 
but many of them are equip- 
ped with the most modern 
of radios! Incidentally, the 
larger canneries have their 

own radiophone systems for communicating with their 
"brailers,” as they call the boats that bring the salmon in from 
the traps. Another interesting contrast — and one that is easier to 
photograph — is that shown by the varying systems of transpor- 
tation. For on the one hand you will see proverbial dog-teams, 
and on the other, the fastest and most modern of airplanes. 
Aircraft, by the way, served us in good stead in our work, for 
they brought us to many remote, and otherwise inaccessible 
locations in only a few hours of flying. The major air services 
in Southeastern Alaska are operated by the Alaska-Washing- 
ton Airways, who use the familiar Lockheed “Vega” cabin 
monoplanes, equipped with pontoons, which make all of 
Alaska’s many coves, lakes and rivers ideal landing-fields. 
There is a decided satisfaction, by the way, in flying over such 
country in a seaplane, knowing that there is a landing field 
under you at all times! And it is certainly from the air that 
Alaska is seen at its best. For the whole beautiful coastline 
is stretched out below you, with its hundreds of islands, 
mountainous and wooded, its verdant mainland, dotted with 
fresh-water lakes where a fisherman can bag a limit catch of 
the sportiest fish in the world in an hour or two, and the blue 

Model dairy which was once a 
Napoleon gave to 

water of the famous Inside Passage stretching endlessly away 
into the distance. On many of the islands there are numerous 
black bear, and it is amusing to see the old Mother bear on 
the edge of some stream teaching her cubs how to catch salmon. 
Their method testifies rather plainly as to the size of the 
Alaskan salmon-runs, for they merely wade out into the river 
until the water is two or three feet deep, and scoop up the 
passing fish with their paws, and toss them onto the shore. 
This makes an unusually interesting picture, but it demands a 
long-focus lens, for Mother Bear is not picture-minded! 

Alaskan weather, unlike the people, is not always so ready 
to co-operate with the photographer. In fact, nearly every 
day that we spent in the country was more or less rainy or 
cloudy. But, if the weather bureau wouldn’t co-operate with 
us, we could at least take advantage of the prevailing weather 
to get pictures of the country in its natural state. This is 
something that any amateur can do; wherever he goes, in fact, 
he should do so, for, after all, a personal travel film is not 
intended to show the country the way it should be, but the 
way it is. Therefore, if you go right ahead, and shoot the 
country as it presents itself to you, rather than waiting for a 
theoretically “ideal” condition, you will find, as I did, that 
your scenes of the natural moods of the country are far more 
interesting than those sent out by the steamship companies 

to lure tourists to an ap- 
parent land of “eternal sun- 
shine.’’ Did you ever notice 
that most of the advertising 
pictures seem to have been 
made when the sun was at 
its brightest? But for a per- 
sonal record, I found that 
filming the country in its 
varying natural moods was 
far more pleasing and satis- 
factory than just so many 
beautiful sunlit scenes. The 
ever-changing clouds and 
fog-banks made an unend- 
ing variety of beautiful com- 
positions. Between them, the 
half-concealed, snow-capped 
mountains and heavily- 
wooded hills, splashed with 
foaming waterfalls, make 

building on the magnificent estate 
Josephine near Paris. 

(Continued on Page 49) 

At Wrangel, Alaska, during the shooting of the “Silver Horde”. 

November, 1930 



New Plunger Lock For Victor 
Model 5 Camera 

V ICTOR has added another refinement to the Model 5 
Visual Focusing Camera. The Turret Front of the Model 
5 is equipped with 3 knurled aluminum shifting pins which 
make it possible for the head to be rotated without touching 
any of the lenses. 

One of these pins has been converted into a plunger lock, 
which prevents accidental or unintentional shifting of the 
turret, although it does not, of course, have any effect on 
the quality of the pictures made with the Camera. 

The lock operates on the “push-pull” principle. To unlock, 
pull out the pin tip. When lenses have been rotated to the 
desired position, simply push the pin tip back in, thus lock- 
ing the turret rigidly in place. 

The Victor Model 5 was the first 16 mm. American Camera 
to be equipped with built-in Visual Focusing. Victor prism 
Focusing is unique in that the Focusing Finder may be instantly 
adjusted to the eyesight of the individual using the Camera 
— a feature which promotes accuracy and which has not yet 
been incorporated in any other 16 mm. Camera. 

Another feature of this method of focusing to which the 
manufacturer calls particular attention is that the focused im- 
age is exact aperture size and shows all of the field taken in 
by the lens. The ground surface of the focusing prism is ex- 
actly the same distance from the lens as is the film when 
pictures are being made, an arrangement that obviates the 
necessity of using an internal compensating lens in the focus- 
ing system. In other words, the eye sees in the Victor finder 
the exact field that is transmitted by the lens to the film. 

No camera can ke tetter tkan its lens. All 
Carl CeissTessars ensure perfect definition 
and krilliancy, even at full aperture, 
and results will not t< 
flare. Tk< 

>e impaired ty 
tese are only a few reasons 

wky Carl Cciss Tessar L, 




ave unt versa 

l end 



J E-N A 


*35 Fifth A ve v New York -s- 728 So. Hill St., Los Angeles 


"IT HE EASTMAN KODAK COMPANY has just announced a 
new projector which is just what hundreds of youngsters 
have been waiting for, and which should be one of the best 
Christmas presents any boy or girl could get this year. It is 
the Kodatoy, which is described by the Eastman Company as 
a dependable motion picture projector that any youngster can 
thread up and run. 

The weight of this new projector, designed for the kiddies, 
is five and a half pounds. Footage is 100 feet of 16 mm. 
safety film, equal to 250 feet of standard 35 mm. film. It 
has a 34 mm. projection lens and is said to be easy to focus. 

At La Carenne, just outside Paris, a new sound-film studio 
has been opened, which is to be let to producers. It is 
insulated by an American (Banroc) system, and equipped with 
Peterson-Poulsen sound recorders. 

Bell & Howell Company Awarded Medal By 
Chicago National Air Races Officials 

T HE BELL & HOWELL Company has been awarded a bronze 
commemorative medal in recognition of co-operation in 
connection with the record-breaking National Air Races held 
in Chicago recently. The medal was awarded by the officers 
and directors of the Chicago Air Race Corporation. 

Prior to the races, a Filmo Projector was used to stimulate 
interest in the coming aviation events by showing movies of 
last year’s Air Races all through the Chicago metropolitan area. 
These pictures were shown several times daily during a 30-day 
period to various organizations with splendid results. 

At the Air Races themselves, 16 mm. motion picture cam- 
eras were very much in evidence. All over the closely crowded 
seats spectators were to be seen using their Filmo movie cam- 
eras to make motion pictures of the air events. Aviation will 
unquestionably open up a vast field for making interesting 
motion pictures. 



November, 1 930 


For follow-up shot* 
are known for their 
smoothness of operation, 
equal tension on all 
movements and being: un- 
affected by temperature. 

The Model A is made 
for Amateur motion pic- 
ture cameras and also 
fits the Standard Still 

Trueball tripod heads 
are unexcelled for sim- 
plicity, accuracy and 
speed of operation. 

The Hoefner four-inch 
Iris and Sunshade com- 
bination is also a supe- 
rior product. 

Model B 

The Model B is for Bell 
& Howell and Mitchell 
Cameras and their re- 
spective tripods. 

The handle is tele- 
scopic and adjustable to 
any angle. 


GLadstone 0243 LOS ANGELES, CALIF. 


Keep Step with the Professionals by Reading The 
Technical Cinematic Magazine of the Motion Pic- 
ture Industry. 


Published in Hollywood by the American Society 
of Cinematographers, the leading professional cam- 
eramen of the world. 

You cannot afford to be without it. 

For Amateurs — Service department, special tech- 
nical articles by the world’s greatest authorities on 
cinematographic science, 
r Fill in and Mail Today] 

American Cinematographer, 

1222 Guaranty Building, 

Hollywood, Calif. 

Gentlemen: Please find enclosed three dollars 

($4.00 for foreign rate) for one year's subscription 
to the American Cinematographer, to begin 

with the issue of 1930. 



Town State 

“Laco Liteing” the “Whoopee” premiere 

I T IS the night of an opening in Hollywood. Thousands of 
curious men, women and children jam the streets for blocks 
about the theatre. It may be the opening of any big picture 
at any theatre . . . the evening will be the same. The picture 
has been publicized . . . the director, the stars — even the fea- 
tured players and perhaps the author . . . everyone is agog 
over the occasion. All are gathered to see the stars as they 
step from their expensive cars in their expensive clothes and 
walk through the glare of the great lights into the theatre. 

There is one thought in the minds of the vast crowds . . . 
it is to see the stars. 

But — back in the dark are a group of men who are never 
considered. The average person in the great crowd never 
gives them a thought. They are the men behind the big lights 
that make it possible for the crowd to see the stars — they are 
what, in the language of the studios are called, “juicers.” 
These men are never given a line of publicity — but what 
would we do without them either in the studio or at the 

So — we tell you now that William O. Mellor, the chief 
electrician at the Samuel Goldwyn Studio was everywhere on the 
night of the opening of “Whoopee.” He was directing the 
exterior lighting and had under him a great force of able men 
who never even dream of getting their names in the papers 
But they did a good job. They made it possible for the stars 
to be seen. And, as the above picture of the event shows, 
he, his men and Laco Lites made a definite impression. 

W. E. Wins Patent Suit 

I N THE first legal decision rendered on Patents 1707545 
and 1734624, Judge Raymond of the U. S. District Court, 
Western District of Michigan Southern Division sitting at 
Grand Rapids has ruled that these patents are valid and have 
been infringed upon. 

The action was brought by the Western Electric Company, 
which is sustained by the legal decision against the Kersten 
Radio Equipment Co., Inc., of Kalamazoo, Michigan. The 
patents cover the Western Electric loud speaker 555-W used 
for talking pictures and the diaphragm of this loud speaker 

The decision derives additional significance from the fact 
that after Western Electric filed its suit in the fall of 1929, 
the Kersten Company offered for the consideration of the 
court another design of loud speaker modified in an attempt 
to avoid infringement. Judge Raymond’s decision holds that 
both designs of Kersten’s speakers are an infringement of the 
Western Electric Company’s patents. 

October, 1 930 



Cine-Kodak Goes on Alaskan Location 

(Continued from Page 46) 

for a diversified reel of scenes. If one is ambitious, and rises 
early, there is always a composition of cloud-and-seascape that 
is worthy of a few feet of film, for the sun rises very early, 
and sets very late in these northern latitudes. We passed 
another steamer at about nine o’clock one night; it was still 
twilight, and by using the F : 1 .9 lens wide open, I secured a 
most interesting picture of the ship, which though perfectly 
timed, preserved the twilight atmosphere of the scene, and 
even showed the incandescent lights in the main saloon of the 
ship. On clear days (of which there really are a few), it is 
possible to get some beautiful sunsets at .about ten-thirty in 
the evening. 

But Alaska is not the only country which should be photo- 
graphed in its native moods, rather than under the so-called 
“ideal” conditions. Every country should be. The tropics are 
an equally outstanding example. One often hears both pro- 
fessional and amateur photographers complaining of the ex- 
tremely contrasty light conditions found in the tropics and the 
south seas. To my mind, these contrasty lightings are just as 
much a part of the country as the palm trees and coral. They 
are natural moods of the country, and should be photographed 
as such. Of course, this does not mean that one must resign 
himself to an absolute whitewash-and-soot type of picture, 
but neither should he go to the other extreme, and try for a 
perfectly-balanced film. Tropical sunlight, snow-white 
beaches, and heavily-shaded cocoanut groves are not conducive 
to a uniformly exposed negative, but they can be so photo- 
graphed as to strike a happy medium between actuality and 
unreal, photographic perfection. By filming such subjects 
either early or late in the day, with long cross-lights, a very 
pleasant result can be obtained. 

Similarly, what south sea reel can be complete without at 
least one of the torrential down pours that are so much a 
part of the country? In photographing one of these, a dark 
foreground should be used, by shooting through an open 
doorway or arch, into the dripping background, which should 
be rendered in a higher key. In such subjects, as in the moist 
weather of Alaska, color filters should almost always be used, 
not so much with the idea of securing better color rendition, 
but to aid in securing definite contrasts on days when the light 
is soft and diffuse. 

The most interesting thing about photography is, to me, 
the fact that, whether one is an amateur or professional, or 
using a still or a movie camera, every day, every scene, brings 
something new to be learned. And this trip to Alaska taught 
me two things: the tremendous enjoyment of taking my Cine- 
Kodak on location with me, and the fact that the natural 
moods of a country are invariably more interesting as photo- 
graphic subjects than the so-called “ideal conditions” for which 
most of us so foolishly wait. 

What is HOME 
without a . . . 





Aerial Photography Since 1918 

Phone HE. 8116 

Phone GL. 7507 Hours 9 to 5 

Also by Appointment 

Dr. G. Floyd Jackman 


706 Hollywood First National Building 
Hollywood Blvd. at Highland Ave. 


OXford 1908 HEmpstead 1128 


Insurance Experting 

510 Guaranty Building 
6331 Hollywood Blvd., Hollywood, California 
Tel: GLadstone 4811 


Speed Movement — Fully Equipped — 5 Matched Pan 
Tachar f.2.3 Lenses — 4-3-2-40 and 35 — two 1,000- 
ft. and four 400-ft. Magazines — Friction Head for Pan- 
ning — Gear Box for Different Speeds — Baby Tripod and 
High Hat — Cases for all with Yale locks. 

Glenn R. Kershner 

c/o A. s. C. 

Mitchell and A K A C H A C 
Bell & Howell V_ A/ VI L KAj 


J. R. Lockwood 

1108 North Lillian Way 

Cable Address 


Have you ordered your Cinematographic 


GRanite 3177 



November, 1 930 

S.M.P.E. Offers Film Rafio 

(Continued from Page 16) 

Among the papers read at the meeting were: "Meeting 
Sound Film Competition Abroad,” by C. J. North and N. D. 
Golden of the Motion Picture Division, Bureau of Foreign and 
Domestic Commerce. ‘‘Microphone Concentrators In Picture 
Production,” by Carl Dreher, RKO Studios. “Some Observa- 
tions on Stereoscopic Projection,” by J. B. Taylor, Research 
Laboratory, General Electric Company. “International Rela- 
tions in the Sound Picture Industry,” by Dr. F. S. Irby, As- 
sociate Editor, Electronics. “Some New Studio Recording 
Equipment,” by W. P. Dutton and S. Read, RCA Victor Com- 
pany. "Dubbing and its Relation to Sound Picture Production,” 
by Ceorge Lewin, Paramount Publix Corp. “Some Suggestions 
for Eliminating Fire Hazard from the Handling and Storage 
of Film in Laboratories,” by R. C. Hubbard, Consolidated Film 
Laboratories. “Double Toning of Motion Picture Film,” by 
J. I. Crabtree and W. Marsh, Kodak Research Laboratories. 
“Condensor and Carbon Microphones — Their Construction and 
Use,” by W. C. Jones, Bell Telephone Laboratories. “Improve- 
ments in Dynamic Speakers,” by I. B. Serge, Utah Radio 
Products Corp. “A Damped Diaphragm Reproducer,” by 
Rudolph Miehling, Universal Sound System. “Aiding the The- 
atre Patron Who Is Hard of Hearing,” by F. H. Graham, Elec- 
trical Research Products, Inc. “The Photoflash Lamp,” by R. 
E. Farnham, General Electric Company, Cleveland. “A Truck 
Mounted Laboratory For Diagnosis of Theatre Acoustic De- 
fects,” by V. A. Schlenker, Vitaphone Corp. “Some Causes For 
Variations in the Light and Steadiness of High Intensity 
Carbons,” by D. B. Joy and A. C. Downes, Research Labora- 
tories, National Carbon Company, Cleveland, Ohio. “Require- 
ments For A Practical System of Three Color Subtractive 
Cinematography,” by Palmer Miller and P. D. Brewster, 
Brewster Color Film Corp. “Principles and Processes of Photog- 
raphy in Natural Colors,” by Glenn E. Matthews, Eastman 
Kodak Research Laboratories. “Recent Developments in RCA 
Photophone Portable Recording Equipment,” by P. M. Robillard 
and E. B. Lyford, RCA Photophone, N. Y. “Trend of Lamp 
Development and Operation in Motion Picture Projectors 
Employing 16 mm. film,” by V. J. Roper and H. I. Wood, Gen- 
eral Electric Co. “Cinematographic Analysis of Mechanical 
Energy Expenditure in the Sprinter,” by C. A. Morrison and 
W. O. Fenn. “Cinematography With the Laryngoscope,” by 
C. A. Morrison, Eastman Teaching Films. “Industry Adopts 
the Motion Picture Camera,” by A. H. Mogensen, Assistant 
Editor, Factory and Industrial Management. 


Church Paper Conducts Motion 
Picture Department 

S UCH extensive interest has been evidenced in the use of 
motion pictures in the church field, that the widely known 
religious magazine, The Expositor, has opened a questions 
and answers department to take care of inquiries from clergy- 
men who desire information as to how to employ movies to 
the best advantage in their work. 

This department is conducted by Ford Hicks, Vocational 
Advisor of the Bell Cr Howell Company, Chicago. Letters of 
inquiry have been received in considerable number from all 
parts of the country. 

In addition to the questions and answers, The Expositor 
makes it a practice to carry, each month, a general article, 
usually about 1000 words in length, on some interesting phase 
of movies in the church field. Practically all of the material 
has to do with 16 mm. pictures. 

J. M. Ramsey, Managing Editor of The Expositor, is him- 
self a motion picture enthusiast of genuine attainments. He 
has written a number of articles on cinematography which 
have appeared in photographic publications, and he has also 
at least one movie appliance invention to his credit. 

A Letter from Hollywood 

(Continued from Page 20) 

"Nope, just starting a French picture,” says the casting 
director, and the gang rush to the furnished rooms and apply 
the scissors and return with the nicest French beards in the 
world — then they eat — for if they are hired they get seven 
and a half bucks and that means a lot of ham and egg sand- 
wiches out here. You can find any type of beard in the world 
right on Sunset or Hollywood Boulevard any day you go out. 

And speaking of eating. You can’t beat this town for 
originality and color. They have sandwich shops here where 
you drive up in your car and a pretty girl dressed in bare legs, 
slippers, and the most gorgeous yellow pajamas comes tripping 
gayly and laughingly to your car and takes your order. Then 
she brings your sandwiches and your coffee, and you can’t 
eat for looking at the pajamas and what they contain. I’ve 
figured it all out, though. The other night I rode up to one 
of these places with a friend in his car. And you know, John, 
I stared so hard and long at the girl I forgot to eat, and when 
we left and I handed back my tray I gave her back the sandwich 
untouched. There’s the answer, John. Look at the money 
they can make selling those same sandwiches maybe a dozen 
times a night. Well, as long as they can get away with it, 
more power to them. But them girls sure do knock your eye 
out — to say nothing of the pajamas. 

But — getting back to getting a job. I think you had better 
stay back in Pittsburgh for a while. I’m figuring on growing a 
beard before long, only you know how I never could grow 
any hair on my chin. Well, that is about all for this time, 
John. Next time I want to tell you about the Hollywood cow- 
boys who clutter up Cahuenga boulevard so you can hardly 
get by without slashing your shins on a spur. 

As always, your determined friend, 



Making Multicolor Two Miles Up 

(Continued from Page 44) 

that isn’t enough, try using a friction trip-head in the same 
condition at the same time! 

“But in spite of these difficulties, we got our picture, sev- 
eral beautiful shots of the tossing billows of the clouds below 
us, and, finally, a shot of the sun as it sank below the clouds 
That two-mile-high sunset, I think, was one of the most 
beautiful scenes I’ve ever shot. There was the great, orange 
globe of the sun sinking below the horizon; the billowy ocean 
clouds in the foreground, gold where the sunlight hit the tops 
of the clouds, purple in the shadows; while above and around 
us the sky was a flaming mass of pink and gold and crimson. 
Such a scene could never have been made in monochrome, but 
in Multicolor it seems just as beautiful in the projection-room 
as it was that evening in the air. 

“Then, for a final thrill — if we needed one, after the glory 
of that sunset — came the dash back to earth. With the sun- 
set, we knew that it would soon be pitch-dark below the 
clouds, so our pilot simply shoved the stick forward, and dove 
almost perpendicularly back to earth, through a hole in the 
clouds, and down into the dark world below. We dropped 
those ten thousand feet in about two minutes, levelled out, 
and raced back to the field, to sink back to earth just as the 
field landing-lights were turned on. 

“The value of color cinematography for such scenes as these 
is rather obvious, but it is equally valuable for less spectacular 
work. For color gives a real sense of depth to aerial scenes. 
If you are above the clouds, the glimpses you get of the earth 
through the inevitable holes in the clouds makes you con- 
scious of being really up in the air. If you are lower down, 
and shooting obliquely at the earth, color makes things stand 
out in their true relation. Not only do you feel that you are 
up in a plane, but you find that you can distinguish the dif- 
ferent objects below you. 

November, 1 930 




Bell & Howell Co 1, 35 

Bredschneider, W. B 32 

Brulatour, Inc., J. E 21 

Boothe Company 27 

Cinematographic Annual 30, 31 

Composite Laboratories 32 

Davidge, Roy.. 32 

Drem Products Corp 41 

Dunning Process Co 26 

DuPont Pathe Film Mfg. Co Inside Front Cover 

Dyer, Elmer 49 

Eastman Kodak Co Inside Back Cover 

Factor, Max 6 

Fearless Camera Co 25 

Coerz American Optical Co., C. P 41 

Hoefner, Fred 48 

Hollywood Camera Exchange -26, 28 

Jackman, Dr. G. Floyd 49 

Lakin Corp 5 

Lockwood, J. R 49 

Mitchell Camera Corp 43, Back Cover 

Mole-Richardson, Inc 2 

Moreno-Snyder Cine Corp., Ltd 25 

Moviola Company 29 

National Carbon Co 4 

Perry, Harry 49 

Priester, Harvey W 49 

Scheibe, George H 32 

Smith Cr Aller, Inc Inside Front Cover 

Superior Engraving Co 28 

Tanar Corporation 7, 19 

Zeiss, Inc., Carl 47 


Don’t miss the December issue of the 
American Cinematographer! Better 
than ever! More Big Features! Be sure 


Get Your Copy! 

WANTED — Position: Young man 23 years, intelligent, steady and am- 

bitious. earnestly desires opportunity to learn cinematography or allied 
profession that will lead to same. Hours work or salary no object. 
Go anywhere, anv time Address Robert Feagans, Walnut Creek, Calif. 

WANTED — Position: Young man 22, intelligent, ambitious and very willing 
to learn: desires to be assistant cameraman. Have good knowledge of 
sound motion pictures. Have had experience with silent film as free- 
lancer. Have had eight years of still photography. P. C. Vance, 760 So. 
San Pedro St., Room 24, MA. 3 23 5, Los Angeles. 

Classified Advertising 

Rates: Four cents a word. Minimum charge, one dollar 

per insertion. 

YOUNG MAN seeks steady position under capable Cinematographer. Some 
experience. Has Universal Camera. Not union. Willing to apply. CARL 
NELSON, 164-12 110th Road. Jamaica, N. Y. 


WANTED — For cash, DeBrie. Pathe. Bell H Howell Standard cameras. Send 
full description. Bass Camera Company, 179 West Madison Street. Chicago. 

WANTED — From Globe-trotting cameramen, film of foreign countries. Ad- 
dress Rex Gordon, Hollywood, Calif. Phone GRanite 693 3. 


FOR SALE- — Five Mitchell cameras, each outfit complete. Prices range from 
$2250 to $4500, according to age and added equipment. Hollywood 

Camera Exchange. 1511 N. Cahuenga. Cable address Hocamex. 

FOR SALE — Two Akeley cameras, each outfit complete. Price camera No. 44, 
$600: No. 212, $1250. Hollywood Camera Exchange, 1511 N. Ca- 
huenga. Cable address Hocamex. 

FOR SALE — 2 complete Mitchell High Speed Outfits, $3 5 00.00 each. Special 
price for purchaser of both. Write or phone Editor of CINEMATOGRAPHER. 

FOR SALE OR RENT — -First Class Akeley Outfit complete. Phone GR-4274, 
or write Dan B. Clark. A. S. C. office. 

FOR SALE — Bell £S Howell Camera, 170 degree: three Lenses F 2 5. Iris. 
Mitchell tripod, four magazines, steel cases. Park J. Ries. 1540 N. 
Cahuenga Ave., GRanite 1185. 

FOR SALE — Thalhammer Iris. 40mm. 50mm. 75mm F 3.5. Lenses in B. fcf H. 
mounts. Park J. Ries, 1540 N. Cahuenga Ave., GRanite 1185. 

FOR SALE OR RENT — Complete Mitchell Camera, latest equipment. Rea- 
sonable. Harry Perry. Phone OX. 1908 or GR. 4274. 

FOR SALE — Mitchell Speed Camera. Don B. Keyes, Phone HE 1841. 

FOR SALE — Akeley outfit. $980.00. Wish to sell Akeley camera, 200 ft. 
capacity: Akeley tripod for same, 4 magazines in separate case. 1 mag- 
azine in camera, matched 2-inch F:3.5 Zeiss: matched 3-inch F.3.5 Goerz, 
6-inch F:4.5 with finder lens: 12-inch Dallmeyer, F.5.6 with finder 
lens. Mechanically O. K. Marfleet, Box 202, Rock Falls, 111. 


FOR SALE — One Bell V Howell Cinemotor. Like new. Used for one picture. 
J. R. Lockwood. 1108 N. Lillian Way GR-3177. 

FOR SALE OR RENT — Mitchell Camera equipped for Sound. A1 Gilks, 
HE- 1490 or A. S. C. Office. GR-4274. 

FOR SALE — Lenses, Accessories, of all kinds, new and used. Bargains. Holly- 
w'ood Camera Exchange, 1511 N. Cahuenga. Cable Address Hocamex. 


FOR RENT — Three Mitchell High Speed Cameras. Equipped for sound. 1000- 
Ft. Magazines. J. R. Lockwood, 1008 North Lillian Way. GR-3177. 

FOR RENT — Eight Bell & Howell cameras, fast lenses, large finders. Mitchell 
tripods. Park J. Ries, 15 40 N. Cahuenga Ave. GR-1185. 

rOR RENT — Akeley camera outfit. Mitchell tripod. 6 magazines, equipped up 
to 6 inch lenses. Park J. Ries, 1540 N. Cahuenga Ave. GRanite 1185. 

FOR RENT — Mitchell Speed Camera, equipped for Sound. Phone Don B. Keyes. 
HE- 1841. 

FOR RENT — 2 Mitchell high speed cameras with latest 40. 5 0 and 75 mm. 
Pan-Astro lenses. 1000 ft. magazines: loose head, tripod. Pliny Horne. 
1318 N. Stanley, HO 7682 or GL 2791. 

FOR RENT — One Mitchell Speed camera fully equipped for sound. 40. 
5 0 and 7 5 mm. and 4 and 6 inch Pan Astro lens. Norman DeVol. 
6507 D exel Ave. ORegon 7492. 


FOR RENT — Cinemotors. One Mitchell and one Bell Cinemotors. J. R. 

Lockwood, 1108 North Lillian Way. GR-3177. 

FOR RENT — Two Mitchell Tiltheads, one with Bell 0 Howell adapter. J. R. 
Lockwood, 1108 North Lillian Way. GR-3177. 

FOR RENT- — Mitchell Motor. Also Mitchell Motor adapter. Mitchell and 
Bell U Howell Cinemotors with counter and batteries. Park J. Ries. 
1540 N. Cahuenga. GR 1185. 

FOR RENT — Mitchell Gear Box with crank and shaft. Mitchell Motor: 1000 
ft. magazines. Phone Donald B. Keyes, HE-1841. 

FOR RENT — Mitchell friction tilthead with Bell 6S Howell adapter. J. R. Lock- 
wood, 1108 N Lillian Way. GRanite 3177. 

FOR RENT — Mitchell high speed gear box complete. Plinv Horne. 13 18 
N. Stanley. HO 7682 or GL 2791. 

Fifty- two 


November, 1 930 

Co mplete Roster at Date of Publication 

John Arnold 
John W. Boyle 
Daniel B. Clark 

O F 

F 1 

C E 

R S 









- First 










- Third 














Chas. G. Clarke 



Hal Mohr 

John F. 


Elmer Dyer 


R. Kershner 

Arthur Miller 



Alfred Gilks 



Sol Polito 

Ned Van Buren 


Philip E. Rosen Fred W. 

John F. Seitz 


Gaetano Gaudio 
John W. Boyle 
Arthur Webb, General Counsel 

Homer Scott 


James Van Trees 
B. Clark 


Mr. Thomas A. Edison, Orange, N. J. Mr. George Eastman, Rochester, N. Y. 

Mr. Albert S. Howell, Chicago 


Mr. Emery Huse, Mr. Fred Gage, Dr. W. B. Rayton, Dr. C. E. K. Mees, Mr. Loyd A. Jones, Dr. V. B. Sease 

Abel, David — Pathe. 

Allen, Paul H. — 

Arnold, John — M-G-M. 

Archer, Fred — 

August, Joe — Fox. 

Bell, Chas. E. — Ray-Bell Films, 
St. Paul. 

Benoit, Georges — Paris. 

Binger, R. O. — M-G-M. 

Boyle, John W.— R-K-O. 
Brown, Jas. S., Jr. — Cal. Studio. 

Carter, Claude C. — Australia. 
Chancellor, Philip M. 

Clark, Daniel B. — Fox. 

Clarke, Chas. G. — Fox. 
Cotner, Frank M. — 

Cowling, H. T. — Eastman Ko- 
dak Co., Rochester, N. Y. 

Davis, Chas. J. — Fox Movie- 

DeVinna, Clyde — M-G-M. 
DeVol, Norman- — R-K-O. 

Dored, John — Paramount News, 
Paris, France. 

Dubray, Jos. A. — Bell & 
Howell, Chicago. 

Dupar, E. B. — Warners’ Vita- 

Dupont, Max — Vitacolor. 

Dyer, Edwin L. — M. P. A. 

Studios, New Orleans. 

Dyer, Elmer G. — Caddo. 

Edeson, Arthur — Fox. 

Fetters, C. Curtis — Fox. 

Fildew, William — 

Fisher, Ross G. — Multicolor. 

Flora, Rol la- — -Fox. 

Folsey, Geo. J., Jr.— New York. 

Gaudio, Gaetano — Warner Bros. 

Gilks, Alfred — Technicolor. 

Good, Frank B. — Warner Bros. 

Gray, King D. — Thunder Bay 
Film, Ltd. 

Greenhalgh, Jack — -F-B-O. 

Guissart, Rene — Elstree Studios, 

Haller, Ernest — First National. 

Herbert, Chas. W. — Fox Movie- 
tone, New York. 

Hilburn, Percy — M-G-M. 

Horne, Pliny — 

Hyer, Wm. C. — Educational. 

Jackman, Dr. Floyd, 1st Nat. 
Bank Bldg., Hollywood. 

Jackman, Fred — Technical 
Director, Warner Bros. 

June, Ray — United Artists. 

Kershner. Glenn — 1st National. 

Keyes, Donald B. — United 

Koenekamp, H. F. — Warner 

Kurrle, Robt. E. — Tec-Art. 

Lang, Chas. B. — Paramount. 

Lindon, Curly- — Paramount. 

Lockwood, J. R. — 

Lundin, Walter — Harold Lloyd, 

MacWilliams, Glen — Fox. 

Marsh, Oliver — M-G-M. 

Marta, Jack A. — Fox. 

McDonell, Claude— London, 

Miller, Arthur — Pathe. 

Milner, Victor- — Paramount. 
Mohr, Hal — Universal. 

Morgan, Ira H. — M-G-M. 

Nogle, George G. — M-G-M. 
O’Connell, L. Wm. — Fox. 

Pahle, Ted — Pathe, New York. 
Palmer, Ernest — Fox. 

Parrish, Fred — Colorado 
Springs, Colo. 

Perry, Harry — Caddo Prod. 
Perry, Paul P. — United Artists. 
Polito, Sol — First National. 
Pomeroy, Roy — 

Powers, Len — 

Rees, Wm. A. — Warner Bros. 


Ries, Park J. — 

Ritchie, Eugene Robt. — 


Roos, Len H. — Len H. Roos. 

Laboratories, Hollywood. 
Rose, Jackson J. — 


Rosher, Chas. — M-G-M. 

Schneiderman, Geo. — Fox 

Schoenbaum, Chas. — Techni- 

Scott, Homer A. — 

Seitz, John F. — First National. 
Sharp, Henry — United Artists, 
Doug. Fairbanks. 

Shearer, Douglas G. — M-G-M. 

Sintzenich, Harold — Eastman 
Kodak Co., Bombay. 

Smith, Jack. 

Snyder, Edward J. — Metro- 

Stengler, Mack — Sennett 

Stevens, George — Hal Roach. 

Struss, Karl — United Artists. 

Stull, Wm. — 

Tappenbeck, Hatto — Fox. 

Tolhurst, Louis H. — M-G-M. 

Van Buren, Ned — Eastman 
Kodak Co., Hollywood. 

Van Enger, Chas. J. — Fox. 

Van Rossem, Walter J. — 

Van Trees, James — 

Varges, Ariel — Fox Hearst 
Corp., Tokyo, Japan. 

Wagner, Sidney C. — Fox. 

Walker, Joseph — Columbia. 

Walker, Vernon L. — Warner 

Warrenton, Gilbert — Universal. 

Wenstrom, Harold — 

Westerberg, Fred — United 

Whitman, Phil H. — 

Wilky, L. Guy — 

Williams, Frank D. — 

Wrigley, Dewey — Metropolitan. 

Wyckoff, Alvin — Multicolor. 

Zucker, Frank C. — Photo- 
phone, New York. 

Here are 

all the qualities you want 

LOOK over this list: — (1) true color 
balance; (2) unique fineness of grain; 

(3) unsurpassed latitude; (4) ample 
speed; (5) ability to give splendid 
shadow detail. Add these characteris- 
tics: (1) a tough, wear-resisting base; 

(2) unfailing roll-to-roll uniformity.... 
Then you have all the qualities you 
want in your negative film. You can 
get the full combination only in East- 
man Panchromatic Negative, Type 2. 



J. E. Brulatour, Inc., Distributors 

Chicago Hollywood 

New York 

3 LEW l